Volume 69

Please click on an abstract of your choice to access the relevant downloadable papers. Please note, you will need to be logged in as member in order to access the proceeding abstracts.

Paperbark Maple (Acer griseum) Conservation Project

Author: Kris R. Bachtell, Anthony S. Aiello, Michael S. Dosman, and Kang

PP: 76-82


Despite being a well-known highly ornamental and popular garden plant, paperbark maple, Acer griseum, is listed as endangered in its native habitat in central China. As far as can be determined, there have been a limited number of introductions from the wild, with five into the United States, one into the United Kingdom, and one into Finland. The first collection was made by British plant collector and explorer Ernest H. “Chinese” Wilson (E.H. Wilson) for James Veitch and Sons Nurseries in 1901. One other collection of two seedlings was collected by Wilson in 1907 for the Arnold Arboretum. Besides the two known introductions of Acer griseum by Wilson, seed was received in the early 1990s from China by Heritage Seedlings, (Salem, Oregon) but it is not known if the seed actually germinated, seedlings collected by the North American-China Plant Exploration Consortium (NACPEC) on its 1994 expedition to Hubei Province, and seed collected in China for Arboretum Mustila (Elimaki, Finland) in 2010. It is likely that plants grown from seed from the Wilson collections and Heritage Seedlings is the source of all plants currently in cultivation. With this in mind, the Morris, Morton, and Arnold Arboreta, and the Beijing Botanical Garden initiated the Acer griseum Conservation Project to determine whether the diversity of cultivated plants in the U.S.A. and U.K. accurately reflects the genetic diversity of plants in the wild, or if further efforts are needed to conserve this species.

Keywords:Conservation, plant introductions, Asian plants

The Result of Using Growth Regulators Paclobutrazol and Chlormequat Chloride on Reducing the Height in Pots of The Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) ‘Vincent’

Author: Ou Wenjin

PP: 34-37

The result shows that all concentrations of the Paclobutrazol (applied at rates of 7.5,15,30 mg a.i. / 2 litre pot) can reduce the height of the sunflower variety ‘Vincent’ in varying degrees. For this experiment, the rate of 30 mg a.i. / 2 litre pot produced the most desirable result for reducing their height. But all concentrations of the Chlormequat Chloride (applied at rates of 0.025%, 0.05% & 0.1% / 2 litre pot) had lit-tle effect or no effect on reducing plant height of the Sunflower variety ‘Vincent’
Vincent sunflower, PGR, height reduction

Role of Nutrients in Plant-Disease Interaction

Author: Reyhaneh Pordel

PP: 17-22

In recent years, the importance of sustainable horticulture has risen to become one of the most critical issues in the plant industry. Besides, plant diseases continue to play a significant limiting role in horticulture production. The control of plant diseases using classical pesticides raises serious concerns about food safety, environmental quality, and pesticide resistance, which have dictated the need for alternative pest management techniques. Nutrients could affect the disease tolerance or resistance of plants to pathogens. However, there are contradictory reports about the effect of nutrients on plant diseases and many factors that influence this response are not well understood. There is a difference in the response of obligate parasites to Nitrogen (N) supply, as when there is a high N level, there is an increase in the severity of the infection. In contrast, in facultative parasites at high N supply, there is a decrease in the severity of the infection. Potassium (K) decreases the susceptibility of host plants up to the optimal level for growth, and beyond this point, there is no further increase in resistance. In contrast to K, the role of Phosphorus (P) in resistance is variable and seemingly inconsistent. Among the micronutrients, Manganese (Mn) can control several diseases as Mn has an essential role in lignin biosynthesis, phenol biosynthesis, photosynthesis and several other functions. Zinc (Zn) was found to have several different effects as in some cases, it decreased, in others increased, and in a few, it did not affect plant susceptibility to diseases. Boron (B) was found to reduce the severity of many diseases because of the function that B has on the cell wall structure, plant membranes and plant metabolism. Calcium (Ca) application can enhance host plants’ resistance to diseases. Silicon (Si) has been shown to control several diseases, and it is believed that Si creates a physical barrier which can restrict fungal hyphae penetration, or it may induce accumulation of antifungal compounds. Integrative plant nutrition is an essential component in sustainable horticulture. It can be a cost-effective and environ-mentally friendly way to control plant diseases with no pesticides. Nutrients can reduce disease to an acceptable level, or at least to a level at which further control by other cultural practices or conventional organic pesticides are more successful and less expensive.
Keywords: Fertilizer, pathogens, minerals, smoke water.
Taming the Wild Stewartia

Author: Timothy M. Boland and Todd J. Rounsaville

PP: 222-228

The Polly Hill Arboretum (PHA) began working with native stewartia in 1967. Our founder, Polly Hill, was devoted to growing trees from seed. In 2006, the Polly Hill Arboretum was recognized as the Na-tionally Accredited Collection holder for stewartia. This status has guided our collection development, particularly on focused seed expeditions, which began in 2007. The PHA has been successful growing both North American species from seed, however, overwintering survival and transplanting of juvenile plants has proved more challenging. New insights into winter storage of seedlings is beginning to shed light on this problem. Experimenta¬tion with overwintering rooted cuttings has revealed that plants have preferred tempera¬ture and chilling requirements. These new overwintering protocols have thus far yielded positive results. Recent work with tissue cul¬ture has also shown promising results with both species. Future work includes grafting superior clones of our native stewartia onto Asiatic species in an effort to overcome the problematic issues of overwintering, transplantability, and better resistance to soil borne pathogens. Our Plant Collections Network (PCN) development plan outlines our next phase work with stewartia over the upcoming several years. The results of this work will be shared as we con¬tinue to bring these exceptional small flowering trees into commercial production.
Keywords:Asexual propagation, native trees, plant collections, seeds, Stewartia
An Exotic Insect Pest, Crapemyrtle Bark Scale (Acanthococcus lagerstroemiae) (Hemiptera: Eriococcidae): Host Range and Acceptance Among 19 Plant Species

Author: Bin Wu, Runshi Xie, Gary W. Knox, Madison Dinkins, Hongmin Qin,

PP: 326-331

Crapemyrtle bark scale (CMBS), Acanthococcus lagerstroemimae (Hemiptera: Eriococcidae), is an introduced, sucking pest mainly found on crapemyrtle (Lagerstroemia spp. L.). CMBS has been reported in 14 U.S. states. Confirming the range of CMBS’s acceptance of different plant species is necessary to estimate its potential in aggravating risks in ecology and losses for the ornamental industry. Hence, in this study, a multiple-choice test was conducted in a greenhouse for 3 months to investigate the host range of CMBS as well as its acceptance among 19 plant species. Based on the current observa¬tion record, CMBS’s host plants included six Lagerstroemia species (L. caudata, L. fauriei 'Kiowa', L. indica 'Dynamite', L. limii, L. speciosa, and L. subcostata) and nine Callicarpa species (C. acuminata, C. americana ‘Bok Tower’, C. bodinieri ‘Profusion’, C. dichotoma ‘Issai’, C. japonica var. luxurians, C. longissima ‘Alba’ C. pilosissima, C. randaiensis and C. salidifolia). Evaluation with a one-way ANOVA (P<0.01) indicated that CMBS showed significant difference in accepting 19 plant species.
Keywords:Lagerstroemia, Callicarpa, IPM, pest management
The Future of Landscaping: Understanding and Embracing Resilience

Author: Marijke Honig

PP: 2-3

With climate change and dwindling water resources, resilience is the new criterion for plants and landscapes. Resilience not only to physical events (drought, storm winds, flooding), but also to human disturbances such as bark stripping, trampling. We need to identify suitable plants that can adapt to a changing climate and bounce back after an extreme event. They may be indigenous or exotic. Need to find suitable combinations of plants – plant mixes – that require minimal maintenance.
Keywords: Genetic diversity, water, conservation
Extra Phosphorus for Flowering and Other Myths

Author: Paul R. Fisher and Jacob H. Shreckhise

PP: 406-413

Do you use a high-phosphorus fertilizer such as 10-10-10 or 14-14-14 to promote roots or flowers? If so, you are following an outdated recipe for nursery production and landscape management. Hopefully, this article will convince you to avoid that practice. In the pro¬cess, you might save on fertilizer costs, protect natural water resources, and avoid an environmental damage lawsuit!
Keywords:Nursery production, Landscape Management, Fertilizer, Flowering, Controlled Release, Best Management Practices
Plant Collecting: Reason and Process

Author: Dan Hinkley

PP: 66-67

Over the past thirty years, I have had the pro¬foundly rewarding opportunity to look at, collect seed of, evaluate, and introduce to cultivation, if warranted, plants from throughout the world. My interest in this regard has been catholic – encompassing plants considered native to my region and those thought of as exotic in both northern and southern hemispheres.
Keywords:Germplasm, plant introductions, genetic resources
Introduction and Possibility of Kumano Cherry: The First New Cerasus-Type Cherry Species to Be Discovered in 100 Years

Author: Masayuki Nakamura

PP: 51-5

Kumano cherry (Prunus kumanoensis T. Katsuki) is a cerasus-type wild cherry species that was first described in 2018 by Dr. Katsuki, who studies the classification of flowering cherry at the Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute. The species represents the first newly discovered wild species since the discovery of Ohshima cherry (Prunus speciosa) in 1915.
Keywords:Cherry, Prunus kumanoensis, Cerasus.
Oman Botanic Gardens

Author: Dermot Molloy

PP: 427-429

The Oman Botanic Gardens is in the Sultanate of Oman near the country’s capital Muscat. The reason for the visit began at the 2013 IPPS conference in Melbourne Australia when two staff members from OBG Bhuthainia and Hunan attended. They both work in the nursery at OBG and were very keen to learn about all new propagation methods. David Hancock met them at the confer¬ence and asked if they would like to visit his nursery Natural Area Nursery in Perth. After the visit David sent out an invitation to all Australian and New Zealand IPPS members to help OBG with difficult species propagation.
Keywords:Propagation, biodiversity, conservation, research
Smart IPM – Data Driven Decisions

Author: Ant Surrage

PP: 381-382

Crapemyrtles - Past, Present and Possibilities

Author: Stan Brown

PP: 229-231

My breeding efforts with crapemyrtle which has spanned 60 years. Important crapemyrtle breeders include Otto Spring, Donald Egolf, David Chopin, Mike Dirr, Carl Whitcomb, Cecil Pounders, David Chopin, Bob Hambuchen, Dr. John Creech, and Ewa Nelson. Some of my efforts at Plants of Redlick have been developing compact forms with dark leaves. I have three distinct compact forms that may prove beneficial in providing new selections. For extending flowering, I am also working on improved length of flower bloom. Repeat blooming is related to sterility.
Keywords:Breeding, Lagerstroemia, plant breeders, woody plants
Naturalistic Planting at the Plantery

Author: Jared Barnes

PP: 208-214

Naturalistic planting continues to garner interest in the horticulture industry due to the desire to have sustainable landscapes that require minimal inputs. Naturalistic design, also known as designed plant communities, ecological planting, and matrix planting, is an approach to urban horticulture that is increasing in popularity due to a variety of fac-tors. This includes minimizing the high cost of maintaining traditional landscapes, inter-est in green infrastructure to mitigate environmental issues, and utilizing plants that create habitat for pollinators and other wild-life. In my Herbaceous Plants class at Ste-phen F. Austin State University (SFA), we teach students principles of ecological design and then apply those concepts through the inception and installation of a 93 m2 (1000 ft2) planting.
Keywords:Ecological and matrix planting, naturalistic design, landscape design, pedagogy, perennials, plant survival strategies, teaching
Favorite Perennials for Pollinators

Author: Heather Alley and Lauren Muller

PP: 200-205

The State Botanical Garden of Georgia (SBGG) has a long-standing commitment to promoting the use of Georgia native plants in landscapes. Native plants are the foundation of nature’s food web upon which all other wildlife depends. The SBGG grows over 175 species of grasses, forbs, trees, and shrubs for annual plant sales and native garden installations across Georgia. The honey bee’s decline is threatening to impact the production of many food crops. This has been widely publicized; however, less well publicized are the decline of native bees, which is adversely affecting ecosystem stability. Gardeners have an increasing appreciation of nature and the importance of native plants in the food web. We list some SBGG recommended native perennial plants which are excellent pollen sources for domesticated and native bees, as well as other pollinators.
Keywords:Biodiversity, growers, larval host plants, native plants, perennials, pollinators, propagation
Effects of Medium Constituents on the In Vitro Flowering Response in Celosia argentea L.

Author: Wakanori Amaki, Yoko Harada, Yuko Yamamoto, Hiroko Nakatsuka and

PP: 38-45

The effects of medium constituents on the growth and flowering in Celosia argentea L. were investigated. At first, the influence of the difference in medium strength was examined. The flowering rate was almost 100 % from 0 MS to 1/8 MS, but no flowering was observed at concentrations higher than 1/4 MS. As the medium strength was lowered, the number of true leaves formed until flowering decreased gradually, and on the 0 MS medium, inflorescence was formed without the formation of true leaf after cotyledons unfolding. Inflorescence formation without true leaf formation was observed only when macro-nutrients in the MS medium constituents were not added. Furthermore, it became clear that inflorescences formed without true leaf formation occurred only when NH4NO3 and KNO3 in the macro-nutrients were not added. All of 16 cultivars tested formed inflorescence without true leaf formation on the 0 MS medium. When the time of transplantation from 0 MS medium to 1/30 MS medium was changed, we confirmed the NH4+ and NO3--free period required for the phenomenon of inflorescence formation without true leaf formation was at least 3 weeks.
Keywords:Tissue culture, nutrient solution
Using Soil Water Sensors to Evaluate Plant Available Water in Engineered Landscape Soils

Author: Kevin Donnelly

PP: 107-111

The performance of plants is subject to many variables. One key aspect is the availability of water in soil. The team at Midwest Trading’s Center for Horticultural Soils Testing and Research have begun a long-term research program investigating the soil water interactions in horticultural soil, specifically for use in container production and landscapes. In soil science, plant available water can be characterized through a moisture release curve that plots moisture content with matric potential. Volumetric moisture con-tent is a measurement of the total volume of water held in a soil. Matric potential is a measurement of how tightly the water is held to the soil surface. Unlike naturally occurring mineral soils, container substrates and engineered landscape soils can vary drastically from one project to another due to site conditions, raw material inputs and recipe.
Keywords:Water availability, engineered soils, water sensors
Technical Sessions of International Plant Propagators’ Society-Southern Region of North America Annual Meeting

Author: Elliott Hallum

PP: 198-199

The 44th Annual Meeting of the International Plant Propagators’ Society-Southern Region of North America (SRNA) convened at 7:30 am on 14 October 2019 at the Crowne Plaza Baton Rouge, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, with President Elliott Hallum presiding.
Keywords:Annual Meeting, Southern Region of North America (SRNA)
Systems Approach to Nursery Certification

Author: Tom Buechel

PP: 90-96

It takes a team to make positive impact and extraordinary improvements in a nursery op-eration. The evolution of systems approaches in the green industry is facilitating this change to better workforces and their growing practices that promote healthy plants. Where did these systems approaches evolve from? The Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HAACP) program is really the originator of the systems approaches that are discussed, allowing you to move forward producing healthy green industry products. This program was developed for the food industry to prevent contamination in all products that could cause serious human health issues. Systems approaches is essentially to-tal quality management on steroids.
Keywords:Nursery certification, non-invasive plants, sustainability, pests, disease
The Effects of Biochar Incorporation on Plant Growth in Container Production

Author: Ping Yu, Lan Huang, Yanjun Cecilia Guo, Mengmeng Gu

PP: 348-353

Biochar is the solid product of pyrolysis of various biomasses, including a lot of agricultural and forestry waste products. The physical and chemical properties of biochars vary significantly due to the differences in feedstock, pre- and post-treatment, and pyrolysis conditions. Based on our ten years of research on incorporating different types of biochar in container substrate, we are confident that biochar made of locally available materials, such as mixed hardwood or sugar-cane bagasse, could replace significant amount (50%) of peat or bark in container mix, without negatively affecting plant growth - and in many cases could be beneficial.
Keywords:Substrate, physical properties
The Perfect Plant

Author: Michael Yanny

PP: 196-197

Mike Yanny recites an original poem describing the perfect plant.
Keywords:Poem, nursery plant, propagation
Effects of Intensity and Quality of Light on the Coloring of Leaves on a Succulent Plant, Graptopetalum paraguayense ‘Bronze’

Author: Arisa Noguchi, Hiroko Nakatsuka and Wakanori Amaki

PP: 53-58

Graptopetalum paraguayense ‘Bronze’ is a small succulent plant with reddish-bronze colored leaves. This plant contains anthocyanins as pigments. Therefore, the effects of light intensity and quality of light on the color and anthocyanin content of leaves in ‘Bronze’ were investigated. The leaf color became more reddish as the light intensity increased. The a* values of the leaves under the green and red light decreased with increasing of treatment days, but the values hardly changed under white and blue light. The anthocyanin content in the leaf epidermis was highest under white light containing blue light component, but the total polyphenol content was highest under blue light. From the above results, it is considered that anthocyanin and polyphenol synthesis in ‘Bronze’ leaves are promoted by blue light.
Keywords:Light quality, succulent plant, anthocyanin, blue light
Growing Spectacular Hanging Baskets and Showcasing Horticultural Excellence

Author: Carly Anderson

PP: 396-397

Under the Research and Horticulture Department at Gardens by the Bay, a team of growers produce novel and spectacular plants and flowers to be showcased in cooled conservatories. Singapore, a non-agricultural county, has limited options for purchasing finished flowering plant material. To mitigate supply and delivery risks, and to showcase our horticultural excellence, the team of growers produce plants in glasshouses throughout the year for breath taking floral displays.
Keywords:Gardens by the Bay, hanging baskets, container production
Succession Planning Creek Hill Style

Author: Ron Strasko

PP: 103-104

Succession planning at Creek Hill Nursery is described.
Keywords:Succession planning, nursery industry, business planning, strategic planning
IPPS Western Region Exchange 2018

Author: Megan Robinson

PP: 44-48

When I first got offered the application to ap- ply for the IPPS Western Region Exchange, I actually thought Grant Hayman my employer was having me on. Little did I know that ap- plying for this and getting accepted was going to be one of the most mind - blowing, eye-opening and memorable experiences of my life.
Keywords: Hawaii, United States, scholarship
Nursery Production Efficiency – The Three W’s: Wastage, Weeds and Water

Author: Kyle Ross

PP: 378-380

Wyevale Nurseries in Hereford is a whole-sale nursery of hardy nursery stock including field grown trees and transplants and containerised shrubs, ferns, herbaceous and grasses. I have been in my current position for a year and a half, before that I was a management trainee for 2 years after graduating from Pershore College with a degree in Horticulture. My responsibilities include overseeing all aspects of growing, crop protection, stock control and product development for the container side of our business. I am also responsible for biosecurity and plant health for the entire business. This paper will be centred around efficiencies that I try to im¬prove within my job role. For me the three greatest challengers as a grower are the three W’s: wastage, weeds and water.
Keywords:Nursery production, pest management, IPM, WhatsApp
Breeding, Selection and Evaluation and Propagation in the NDSU Woody Plant Improvement Program

Author: Todd P. West

PP: 191-195

Woody plant evaluations at North Dakota State University began in 1954. In 1971, Dr. Dale E. Herman initiated the Woody Plant Improvement Program (WPIP). Woody plant introductions begin in 1986 with the collaborative release of Meadowlark forsythia (Forsythia ‘Meadowlark’) with South Dakota State University, Arnold Arboretum, and North Carolina-Regional Plant Introduction Station. To date, this program has released 58 woody plant selection into the ornamental nursery trade.
Keywords:Breeding, new plants, woody plants, winter hardy
Dϋmmen Orange® Basewell™ Trial at Midwest Groundcovers LLC

Author: Louis Manzella

PP: 147-153

Unrooted cuttings can be very difficult to root for many species of plants. They require time, space, and controlled environments for successful propagation. A new solution to propagation is known as Basewell™. Developed by Dϋmmen Orange®, Basewell™ products are bare-root cuttings with advanced root development that can be stuck directly in their final containers, eliminating the step of propagation. Cuttings arrive with a small root system and a cartridge at the base to give the cuttings good posture and a head start when transplanting. Some major benefits to Basewell™ include a more simplified process to propagation, space optimization by sticking in final containers, and reduction in labor costs. Basewell™ products are adaptable to automation and they offer a wide range of annuals and perennials to diversify production planning and maximize production turns (Dϋmmen Orange). Production of Basewell™ products is very simple. Bareroot cuttings are received, plants are stuck in their final container, and then produced. The objective of the Basewell™ trial was to determine if taxa in 32-cell trays will be ready for transplant after 3 weeks. Furthermore, to determine production time for Basewell™ stuck in trade 1-gal containers.
Keywords:Dϋmmen Orange® Basewell™ products, adventitious root initiation, asexual propagation, unrooted cuttings
IPPS Singapore Symposium 2019

Author: Hayden Foulds

PP: 388-395

At first glance, Singapore might seem to be an odd choice to hold an IPPS symposium. With a population density of 7800 people per square kilometre (New Zealand has 18), one would wonder if there was any room to grow plants. Add in the tropical climate of being located one degree off the equator, one would wonder what would actually grow in such a climate? But horticulturally, there is a bit hap-pening in Singapore despite the challenge of being a city state. In 1967, the vision of a city in a garden was introduced putting greening initiatives at the forefront of future development. Almost 10% of the land area has been set aside for parks and reserves. Recent developments like Gardens by the Bay have also lead to Singapore becoming a horticul¬tural hotspot in Asia.
Keywords:Parks, nurseries, greening
Avoiding Diseases in Propagation

Author: Ann R. Chase

PP: 61-63

The characteristics of propagation that promote disease are excess water, high humidity, poor air movement, and handling. In addition, there are generally open wounds on unrooted cuttings for obvious reasons. Water trumps fungicides! That means poor water management cannot be repaired by application of fungicides and bactericides. I’ve heard really good growers say that some diseases never occur unless the water is not managed correctly. Getting plants out of misting as soon as possible is always the best idea.
Keywords:Fungi, bacteria, Botrytis, Pythium, RootShield
The Changing Garden Paradigm: Perceptions of One Extension Agent

Author: Gary R. Bachman

PP: 206-207

There is increased interest in gardening, vegetables, and sustainably grown product with today’s consumers. Consumers want smaller garden footprints, such as container growing, in their more confined patios and balconies. The gardening consumer wants to grow some of their own food but are concerned with food security and production. The modern gardener wants recommendations, which includes social media, workshops, garden shows and festivals. To maintain market share, the green industry needs to address the shifting perceptions and expectations of the modern gardener.
Keywords:Consumer gardening information, container growing, millennials, urban and consumer horticulture, vegetable gardening
Are You Prepared for The Future? Succession Planning Panel Discussion Points

Author: Kathy McGinty

PP: 99-101

Opening remarks on the Succession Planning Panel discussion.
Keywords:Succession planning, nursery industry, business planning, strategic planning
Overview of the 2021 International IPPS Tour in Southwest British Columbia, Canada and Northwest Washington State, USA

Author: Douglas Justice

PP: 68-69

H: Abstract
The 2021 meeting of the IPPS International begins with the International Tour, which starts in Vancouver, British Columbia and finishes in Bellingham, Washington, the site of the IPPS Western Region Annual Meeting. On the tour, we will see magnificent scenery, excellent parks and gardens, and a wide array of first-rate propagation and production nurseries. Our itinerary includes stops in and around Vancouver and picturesque southern Vancouver Island; mild, protected Puget Sound; the dry interior of British Columbia; and the coastal mountains and the transition zones between. We will be travelling through several biogeoclimatic zones as we see many distinctive landscapes. The following is a taste of what to expect.
Keywords:International tour preview, Pacific northwest
What Do Plant Breeders Do?

Author: Chuck Pavlich

PP: 73-75

It all starts with an idea – or a curiosity and the question; “What if?” Terra Nova relies on traditional breeding methods and the creative mind to bring out new products. However, but we’re not afraid to use and have used most genetic manipulation tools to increase our chances of developing novel products. With ploidy manipulation, we are able to restore fertility in some infertile hybrids. We are also able to increase flower or plant size or make a plant more stiffly upright in order to support the weight of relatively larger flowers. We have also made a few bi-generic crosses possible by raising the ploidy level of a distantly related plant.
Keywords:Germplasm, plant introductions, hybrids, breeding, coleus, begonia, Heuchera, Bergenia, Mukgenia
IPM Approaches for the Management of Chilli Thrips and Crapemyrtle Bark Scale

Author: Yan Chen, Rodrigo Diaz and Dennis Ring, Michael E Merchant, Erfa

PP: 240-245

Both chilli thrips (Scirtothrips dorsalis) and crapemyrtle bark scale (Acanthococcus lagerstroemiae (Kuwana) are among the top insect pests challenging the ornamental horticulture industry both in the nursery production and landscape management of ornamental species. The regional integrated pest management (IPM) team works have been conducted over the past fifteen years for chilli thrips and five years for crapemyrtle bark scale to gain knowledge on their biology and test the effectiveness of various cultural, biological and chemical management options. In this presentation, basic biology and current management recommendations are discussed to provide options for industry pest management professionals when considering a programmatic approach to manage these two pests.
Keywords:Crapemyrtle, crapemyrtle bark scale, Scirtorhtips, Lagerstoemia
Assessing Ornamental Species and Cultivars for Invasiveness in Wisconsin DNR

Author: Kelly Kearns, Tara Bergeson, and Jason Granberg

PP: 144-146

Invasive plants can cause significant harm to lands and waters by displacing and sometimes eliminating native species; changing ecological structure, composition, and/or function of native plant communities; negatively impact agriculture, recreation, tourism and other factors; and may cause harm to human health. The Wisconsin invasive species rule (Wis. Adm. Code ch. NR 40) is aimed at preventing new invasive species from getting to Wisconsin, enabling quick action to control or eradicate those here but not yet established and educating the public about which species are or may become invasive and encouraging their control and limiting their spread.
Keywords:Invasive plants, invasive species council, risk assessment
Observations from the LSU AgCenter Hammond Research Station Trial Gardens

Author: Jeb S. Fields and Jason Stagg

PP: 250-257

The Louisiana State University Agricultural Center’s (LSU AgCenter) Hammond Research Station is the Center of Excellence for the Louisiana Green industry. As such, we strive to provide the most relevant and beneficial research and programming aimed to help the industry grow. Our mission is to enhance production efficiency and landscape sustainability through research, extension, and educational outreach - as well as to evaluate and promote specialty crops for the nursery, landscape, and garden center industries in Louisiana. The station houses research efforts into environmental nursery production, sustainable landscape practices, landscape entomology, and landscape horticulture. Most notably, the Hammond Research Station is home to the Hammond Trial Gardens, which were featured on the International Plant Propagators Society Southern Region tour and brochure. The Hammond Trial Gardens occupy approximately 40 acres and house well over 1000 different plant varieties, trials and demonstrations, annually. Plant trials range from seasonal bedding plants to ornamental shrubs and trees to edibles.
Keywords:Landscape horticulture, landscape sustainability, plant evaluation, trial gardens
Plastics in Horticulture

Author: Alex Everett and David Chilvers

PP: 359-360

At the end of 2017 David Attenborough and the team at Blue Planet 2 brought the startling truth about our use of plastics into every liv¬ing room in the country. The nation sat up and realized that we are dumping huge amounts of plastics into our rivers and oceans every day, and that we needed to act before it was too late. Alex Everett (Aeroplas) and David Chilvers (The Bransford Webbs Plant Com¬pany) highlight one way in which the Ornamentals Horticulture industry has led the way in a collaboration to develop one solution to help alleviate the problem.
Keywords:Containers, recycle, waste, environment.
Lean Flow in the Green Industry

Author: Gerson &ldquoGary&rdquo Cort&eacutes

PP: 64-65

Labor is typically the biggest slice of the cost pie in the Green Industry. Whether we are in a strong or weak economy, labor efficiency is a paramount issue. FlowVision’s Lean Flow methodology works to make your employees more ef-ficient. We work together with your team to come up with the most appropriate so¬lutions for your business, and then we will guide you to bring those concepts and visions to reality. We have developed several concepts that have increased productivity, improved quality, reduced credits/claims, and drastically reduced overtime during the busy shipping sea¬son. Two of the biggest areas of benefits are in Progressive Work and Dock Shipping Supermarket.
Keywords:Work efficiency, progressive work, shipping, labor
Horticulture on the Wild Side

Author: David Hancock

PP: 1

The design and construction of a new nursery in the Omani Desert and the growing of 800,000 plants for a constructed wetland to purify oil field wastewater. The challenges, risks and environmental benefits to deliver all from scratch in a 12month timeframe.
Keywords: Oilfield water, constructed wetland, Oman wetland species, seed, propagation, nursery construction, nursery operating procedures
Are You Prepared for The Future?

Author: David Thompson

PP: 105-106

Succession planning at Foxborough Nursery is described.
Keywords:Succession planning, nursery industry, business planning, strategic planning
Sustainability by the Bay

Author: Dex Chen

PP: 404-405

Underlying the concept of Gardens by the Bay are the principles of environmental sustainability. For Bay South, the first phase of the Gardens’ development, a concerted effort was made to plan and design for sustainable cycles in energy and water.
Keywords:Environment, energy, water, heating, cooling
Propagation and Production Changes at Johnson’s Nursery

Author: Ben French

PP: 121-126

It’s all about opportunity! In the upcoming years, every company will be facing business challenges, following the trends of just about all the other older industries. Sales at our company are growing year over year since the recession, and our own production can hardly keep up. Some of our local business competition disappeared during the recession.
Keywords:Propagation, business challenges, nursery growth, field production, container production, hardy plants, Quercus, Acer
Managing Hydration of Herbaceous Cuttings – From Harvest to Stick

Author: Alex Everett and David Chilvers

PP: 361-

During the last 20 years, the Floriculture industry has seen an exponential growth of vegetatively propagated plants originating from offshore production locations. With the growth of offshore production, the need to manage URC post-harvest life is critical to insure uniform establishment of root liners. We have investigated the role of relative humidity (RH) on post-harvest performance of a wide range of species currently available for sale. Uniform and rapid root development occurs when unrooted cuttings (URC) are fully hydrated prior to sticking, regardless of hydration status upon arrival at the rooting location. The best hydration treatment was removal of URC from all packaging and plac¬ing in a RH controlled (90-99%) cooler at 8C. Leaving URC in the plastic bag, but out of the shipping containers, was acceptable if there was enough time (12-24 hours) in a RH controlled chamber to fully hydrate the URC. The worse treatment that resulted in poor, uneven and reduced rooting was the current practice of placing URC in a non-RH controlled chamber at 8C without packaging. Once URC were stuck, the first 5-7 days re¬quired high RH to maintain URC turgidity. Rooting speed was optimized when the duration of the on-cycle was controlled to maintain foliage moisture without increasing the soil moisture to saturation. Optimizing the dry and wet soil moisture target weights were critical factors for promoting callus for¬mation with lower dry target weights needed to promote uniform root growth throughout the soil profile.
Keywords:Cutting propagation, perennials, vegetative annuals, cutting storage, hydration
Trading Gray Cubicles for Rainbow Skies: How I Changed Careers and Ended up Growing Plants in Hawaii

Author: Emily Teng

PP: 23-27

Most of you reading this pay a power bill, right? Here is a question: have any of you ever wondered how your account information with the power company gets transferred over when the power company changes over to a new software system? Anybody? Neither did I. At least not until my job was to get that information moved over by writing COBOL computer code. If this sounds boring, then I have to agree. But twenty years ago, I was freshly graduated from college with a bachelor’s degree in Chemistry from the University of South Carolina Honors College, and I was sitting in front of a computer screen for eight to twelve hours a day typing code like this.
Keywords: Careers, poinsettia, tropical plants
Succession-Planning Panel Discussion

Author: Brian M. Decker

PP: 102

Succession planning at Decker's Nursery is described.
Keywords:Succession planning, nursery industry, business planning, strategic planning
A Genome Size Survey of the Blue and White Fruited Dogwoods (Cornus L.)

Author: Joseph Pryzdia and Kim Shearer

PP: 160-166

Consisting of approximately 58 different species of shrubs, small trees, and to a lesser extent herbaceous perennial, dogwoods (Cornus) are considered to be a greatly valued landscape plant with a range covering much of the temperate and subtropical regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Species belonging to Cornus have been frequently cultivated, bred, and selected with respect to their pronounced four-season attributes including attractive flowers, fruit, bark, foliage, and form. According to the Census of Horticultural Specialties sales of dogwoods within the United States accounted for greater than $27.8 million.
Keywords:Genome size, biotechnology, research, flow cytometry
Advances in Our Understanding of the Disease Biocontrol Potential and Enhancement of Trichoderma harzianum Strain T22 (Trianum®)

Author: Adrian Jackson

PP: 368-374

The commercial product Trianum-P is a registered plant protection product for the control of plant diseases in growing media. It contains the Trichoderma harzianum strain T22 which is arguably the most widely applied beneficial fungus in commercial horticulture today. As part of this year’s Trianum-P development work, the author carried out a series of small-scale tests and trials to evaluate the potential benefits of combining Trianum-P with various commercial biostimulants in the production of ornamental plants. One of the challenges of using disease biocontrol agents in crop production is an apparent inconsistency in field performance. It is incumbent on us to find ways to enhance the disease biocontrol activities of T22 and other disease antagonistic micro-organisms. The results obtained in this preliminary work have shown that the combined treatments of Trianum-P and various biostimulants produced various plant growth effects and reduced disease incidence. Fungal biomass development of T. harzianum (T22) was favoured by 0.05% Vidi Parva and the pelleted plant-based product Vidi Funda. The biostimulant Fortafol-D inhibited T. harzianum conidiospore germination at the commercial rate (0.1%v/v). The significance of this is discussed. Early plant growth stimulation effects by Trianum-P were observed in Tagetes. Lavandula plugs treated with Trianum-P + Vidi Parva developed less root disease incidence and more shoot extension growth compared to untreated controls. In Ceanothus the Trianum-P treatment produced the best overall plant shape and more spring growth than all other treatments. A reduced number of flower heads in the Trianum-P treated Ceanothus may have been attributed to stress reduction effects and growth hormone induction resulting from T.harzianum’s symbiotic associations with the plant’s roots. In Hebe the greatest root biomass was produced by the Trianum-P + Vidi Parva and M149 + Vidi Parva treatments. Trianum-P + Vidi Parva gave the best results overall, scoring highly in root biomass production, strong lateral root production and achieving the greatest reduction in disease incidence. In Deutzia more root biomass and the best root quality was produced in the Trianum-P and Trianum-P + Vidi Parva treatments.
Keywords:Disease management, fungus, Tagetes, Lavandula, Ceanothus, Deutzia
Propagation of Chautauqua Oaks at Niagara College

Author: Mary Jane Clark, Melissa Drake, Daynan Lepore, Rain Avila, and E

PP: 97-98

The Chautauqua Oak Propagation Research Project aims to evaluate nursery propagation containers and production practices for growing oak trees with healthy root systems. During the propagation phase of growth in the Niagara College Greenhouse, RootSmart™ propagation trays were evaluated in combination with fertilizer and watering strategies to optimize white oak seed¬ling root growth and survival.
Keywords:White oak seed propagation, Quercus alba, root system development, RootSmart™ propagation trays
The Times, They Are a Changin’

Author: James Berry

PP: 215-221

The thriving horticulture world has seen its share of changes. How we as an industry have evolved over the years is simply the beginning of bold, bright changes the future holds. Advancements in technology, especially the science of plant-breeding and increasingly automated operations are even more striking. Our industry can adapt and evolve to create the landscape - both literally and figuratively - to ensure longevity and success. Where will we position ourselves as an industry? Technology affects the labor force, climate change affects consumer habits and so on; change is here and accelerating. New crops and their specific regulations have created opportunities for technologies and growing operations never seen before. We must change our market outlook on customer bases - from local to state, region, country and beyond. Climate change has the potential to alter the horticulture industry in a way no other outside threat has before. The industry must remind consumers that plants are a partial solution to environmental change and global warming. The curse of cloud access to information is the loss of credibility of science and truth - dismissed by bloggers and trolls disguised as news sources. While we are competitors, our green industry relies heavily on one another to succeed. Our industry can remain united to speak truth to those unwilling to protect our environment - lead by example in instituting positive change in regulation, land and water use, and sustainable growing practices. The future is bright, and change is constant. We must remain diligent as partners going forward in uncertain times.
Keywords:Adaption to change, automation, climate change, consumer preferences, digital communication, green industry, marketing, metathesiophobia, new crops, plant breeding, personnel development, propagation, technology, sustainable growing practices, tissue culture
Growing Greener Production Opportunities for Nurseries

Author: Steve Castorani

PP: 232-239

Our current development model of urban sprawl and uncontrolled development is recognized as unsustainable by planners, architects and environmentalists. There are opportunities for nurseries in the Ecosystem Services and Green Infrastructure. Man-made, designed landscapes must evolve by reducing energy inputs while increasing biodiversity and plant density. These methods will also reduce the threats posed by invasive species. Additional opportunities present themselves to landscape contractors that are willing to remove invasive species and revegetate land using native plants. Perennials selected have the ability to help slow runoff, accelerate infiltration and enhance the evaporation of stormwater runoff. The inclusion of plants in these engineered systems also creates an opportunity for increased biodiversity by increasing the variety of plants that support pollinator species.
Keywords:Ecosystem services and green infrastructure, green industry, native perennial plants, plant mitigation, sustainable landscapes, urban sprawl
Research and Development at Hakusan Company

Author: Yoshikuni Suzuki

PP: 59-60

Hakusan co., Ltd. is an import-export com-pany specialized in flower seeds, seedlings and horticultural goods. We have made a great effort to understand various market conditions and have unique opportunity to market our outstanding products to fulfill the needs especially for professionals and con¬sumers. We are pleased to assist you build your successful horticultural fields through our marketing techniques.
Keywords:Tissue culture, micropropagation, import, export.
NGPPBUT India Conference Abstracts

Author: Rakhi Chaturvedi

PP: 438-518

Abstracts from the Next Generation Plant Production and Utilization Technologies (NGPPBUT-2019), the first meeting of the International Plant Propaga¬tors’ Society in India.
Keywords:Nursery, tissue culture, production, medicinal
Survival and Growth of Hickories and Pecan After Containerization and Field Planting

Author: Brandon Miller and Nina Bassuk

PP: 158-159

Hickories (Carya) include many stately, native trees, that offer superior ornamental and adaptable features with great promise for application in managed landscapes, especially urban environments. Immense interest exists in effectively producing these trees, however, due to their lag-phase shoot growth and strong development of a taproot with minimal fibrous-root branching, these trees exhibit resistance to standard growing techniques and reduced transplant success. New commercial products such as modified nursery containers are touted as better alternatives to traditional production techniques. If these new products are effective, they provide new opportunities for developing hickory crops for nursery production. We questioned whether traditional field production, standard plastic containers, or new fabric nursery pots could be used to effectively grow bare-root whips of hickories and northern pecan.
Keywords:Carya, hickory, propagation, containerization, pecan, production systems
Effect of Plant Enhancement Liquid “FFC-Vegemake©” on Growth of Edible Flower Cultivated by Semi-Hydroponic Method

Author: Sachiko Hasegawa and Tadao Fujimori

PP: 46-48

Since 1984, Akatsuka Garden Company has focused on the behavior of certain ions, especially iron ions in water and interactions of water molecules with them. We have continued research on various solutions to not only accelerate plant growth, but also activate physiological functions of plants. Based on this research, we have developed FFC materials such as “FFC-Ace” for soil improvement, “FFC-Vegemake” for plant enhancement, and others.
Keywords:Edible crop, vegetables, hydroponics, pansy, torenia, nasturtium, snapdragon
Efficient Water Use in Ornamental Production

Author: Georgina Key

PP: 375-377

Growers in the north west of Europe tend to be more technologically savvy and innovative compared with Mediterranean or eastern European regions. However, there is a need, and a desire, to apply basic practices well, and learn more about newer technologies, and the Fertigation Bible is an importance resource to help growers do this.
Keywords:Crop management, fertilizer, fertigation, irrigation
Hardwood and Sugarcane Biochar Can Replace Bark-Based Substrate for Container Production of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and Basil (Ocimum basilicum) Plants

Author: Ping Yu, Mengmeng Gu, Qiansheng Li, Lan Huang

PP: 340-347

Biochar (BC) has potential as a supplement for more expensive peat and bark media com¬ponents in container production of plants. This research demonstrates that mixed hardwood biochar (HB) can replace 50% of bark-based substrate, while sugarcane biochar (SBB) can replace 70% of bark-based substrate in container mixes for tomato and basil production. There was no adverse effect on plant growth. Tomato plants grown in SBB amended substrates had lower total dry weight, but similar or higher fruit dry weight in comparison to the control. The suitable rates of SBB and HB to replace bark-based substrate for container production of other crops are worthy of further investigation.
Keywords:Container media, substrate physical properties.
Fertilizer Placement Effects on Weed Growth and Competition with Container-grown Ornamentals

Author: Yuvraj Khamare, S. Christopher Marble, and Annette Chandler

PP: 267-273

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of fertilizer placement on the growth of eclipta (Eclipta prostrata) and evaluate its competition effect in container-grown ornamental plants. Results indicated that subdressing at a depth of 7.5 cm resulted in a 50% decrease in eclipta growth in comparison with a topdress fertilizer treatment, but subdressing at 2.5 or 5 cm had no effect on eclipta growth. Growth of Ligustrum lucidum and Buxus microphylla were similar in pots that were subdressed at 2.5 or 5 cm, but growth decreased when pots were sub¬dressed at a depth of 7.5 cm. Overall, results indicate that subdressing could be an effective weed management strategy but in order to prevent delays in production time, subdressing depth needs to be based on initial liner size.
Keywords:Buxus microphylla, eclipta (Eclipta prostrata), Ligustrum lucidum, weed control
Earth-KindTM Grapes: Low Input Grapes for the Backyard

Author: Justin Scheiner, Jeff Floyd, Kenny Rollins, Greg Church, Stephen

PP: 301-308

Earth-KindTM Grapes research trials were initiated in Texas in 2015 and have since expanded to include seven sites across the state. These research sites represent a wide range of climatic and soils conditions with an aim of identifying well-adapted grapes that are suited for low-input culture. Beyond initial site preparation, no fertilizers are applied and no pesticides are used for the duration of the study. Data collection on vine vigor, nutritional status, yield, fruit composition, and overall health and appearance begins in year three when vines reach bearing age. Data collection is currently underway at four sites and will begin at three more sites in 2020. Observations of nutrient deficiency and incidence of pests and disease have made and will contribute to the overall determination of superior cultivars.
Keywords:Earth-Kind, grapes, low-input culture, muscadines
Anatomy of a Gravel Garden

Author: Jeff Epping

PP: 118-120

When you conjure up an image of a “gravel garden”, it probably isn’t very fun and colorful — a sea of hot, dry gravel, some harsh craggy rocks and a handful of plain green, sparsely growing plants come to mind? This image might be right on the money, if we were talking about mountainous alpine rock gardens, but the gravel gardens that we’ve created here at Olbrich are different…very different. Our gravel gardens are chock full of tough, lush, and colorful plants that grow harmoniously together to create vibrant plant communities.
Keywords:Gravel gardens, sustainable plant communities, ecologically designed gardens, landscape design
Buzzsod: A Cool-Season Grass Dominant Meadow Mix for Wildflower Sod Production

Author: John Kaszan, Erik Ervin, Sue Barton, and Deborah Delaney

PP: 138-143

Most meadow plantings tend to be warm-season grass dominant. There are more species of native cool-season grasses, however, found in mid-Atlantic meadows. Replacing native warm-season grasses as the dominant grass type in meadow mixes with native cool-season grasses may open new methods of production for meadow establishment. When establish¬ing meadows, weeds can be a massive hindrance (Weaner and Christopher, 2016). A well-developed wildflower sod root mass may ease the burden that weeds put on the establishment of native plant communities. Even if cool-season grasses cannot persist in a wildflower sod, they may allow for new means of propagating and establishing native plant communities.
Keywords:Meadow plantings, cool season grasses, warm season grasses, wildflowers
Effects of Ecological Restoration Decisions on Native Plant Horticulture

Author: Elliott Duemler and Corrine Daniels

PP: 112-117

Applied Ecological Services, Inc. (AES) is a 40-year-old ecological consulting firm whose vision is one of bringing the science of ecology to all land use decisions. We bring to this mission a diverse consulting staff of ecologists, botanists, ornithologists, engineers, landscape architects, GIS specialists and other science specialists. Our experienced field contracting services personnel install and manage ecological restorations in a variety of ecosystems, adapting to challenges. in addition, since the firm’s inception, success of these efforts has relied on the growth of our robust native plant nursery, Taylor Creek Restoration Nurseries (TCRN).
Keywords:Ecological restoration, native plants, ecology
Crop Production Horticulture, The Next Generation

Author: Mark Diggines

PP: 357-358

I will be looking at the perceived perception of horticulture from the younger generation despite the value that the industry has within our economy. This will then be followed by looking at the objectives horticultural groups such as the RHS and the All-Party Parliamentary Gardening and Horticulture Group have put in place as a result of this.
Keywords:Education, apprenticeship, internship
Variations and Peculiarities in Plant Breeding

Author: H. William Barnes

PP: 4-10

Plant breeding can be approached via a variety of avenues. Time tested methods of hand pollination either by direct transfer by fingers, popsicle sticks or artists brushes are still quite valid and useful. Some new techniques include caging plants with bees, and using mechanical devices such as electric tooth brushes to dislodge pollen. Still other methods can be as simple as interplanting two different cultivars or plants in a given area and let natural forces do the job.
Keywords: Hybrid crosses, Hibiscus, Capsicum, pollen
Optimizing N Input Rate for Selected Asian Vegetable Production (luffa and long bean) in Florida

Author: Yanlin Wang, Gabriel Maltais-Landry, Bala Rathinasabapathi, Stev

PP: 315-321

There are more than 40 types of Asian vegetable crops grown in Florida. Recommendations for nitrogen (N) fertilization are being developed by UF/IFAS for Florida growers. Nitrate leaching is common in Florida due to the combination of sandy soils and high precipitation. Growers commonly over-fertilize with N as an insurance for high yield, which can negatively affect the environment and production costs. The objective of this study was to determine the optimal N fertilizer input rates for luffa (Luffa acutangula) and long bean (Vigna unguiculata) under conventional production in Florida. Our research shows that maximum yield occurred at N rates of 171 and 227 kg.ha-1 (150 and 200 lb.ac-1), respectively, for luffa and long bean.
Keywords:Asian vegetables, environment, health, Luffa acutangular, N input, Vigna unguiculata, yield
Current Trends in Propagation and Commercialization of Aquatic/Aquarium Plants

Author: S. K. Unnikrishnan

PP: 28-33

Aquarium plant/aquatic plant production is estimated to be 400-million-dollar worth industry with annual growth of 2-3%. As popularity of aquarium plants is increasing through the introductions of dynamic Planted Aquariums, Vivariums, Paludariums,etc, the aquatic plant growers are embracing innovative methods by adopting modern cultivation practices and packing methods in order for minimizing mortality and damage during transportation. The modern agricultural practices such as Hydroponics, Aeroponics, Plant Tissue Culture, etc, have certainly helped deliver premium quality aquarium plants to end users. This review highlights not only its adaptation to growth conditions depending upon the seasonal variations but the modern techniques for commercial production by employing innovative packing methods also.
Keywords: Tissue culture, micropropagation, aeroponics, hydroponics
A Local Native Nursery Perspective on Propagation: One Way

Author: Rick Webb

PP: 322-325

There are opportunities for the green industry to produce native plants that perform functional ecological services. Native plant species can be produced for building con-structed wetlands for stormwater management, loosely termed “Green Infrastructure”. Millennials are looking for functional, sus-tainably produced landscape plants – not just traditional, containerized shrubs and trees that look “polished” in the landscape. We include a list of suggested plant for green infrastructure management in Louisiana and environs.
Keywords:Constructed wetlands, ecological services, functional plants, green infrastructure, green industry, native plants, storm water management, sustainability
The Economics of Biophilia: How Green Infrastructure Fosters Economic Development

Author: Charlie Hall

PP: 132-137

There is little doubt that the green industry supply chain has experienced unprecedented growth, innovation, and change over the last several decades. However, recent slower growth in demand and tighter profit margins point to a maturing market. Survival in the next decade will require a progressive mind-set and a willingness to strengthen existing core competencies or develop entirely new ones, which may involve greater firm-level risk. If the green industry can position itself in such a way that its products/services are considered to be necessities in people’s lives and not mere luxuries, that is the best mitigation strategy against recession and weather-related risks it can employ.
Keywords:Green industry, economics, green infrastructure.
Developmental Stages and Host Range Confirmation of Crapemyrtle Bark Scale (Acanthococcus lagerstromiae)

Author: Runshi Xie, Bin Wu, Gary W. Knox, Hongmin Qin, Mengmeng Gu

PP: 332-339

Crapemyrtle Bark Scale [(CMBS) Acanthococcus lagerstroemiae] is an exotic pest species that is causing aesthetic and economic damages to crapemyrtles and posing potential threats to other horticultural crops. Although previous studies had reported on the life history of this insect pest, much information is still unclear or missing in terms of the insect developmental process and its ability to infest alternative hosts. In this study, two different insect rearing methods were utilized to obtain a detailed documentation of each developmental stages of CMBS. Infestations of CMBS were confirmed on apple (Malus domestica), Malus angustifolia, Chaenomeles speciosa, Disopyros rhombifolia, Heimia salicifolia and Lagerstroemia 'Spiced Plum'. No sign of CMBS infestation was observed on Rubus 'Arapaho', Rubus 'Navaho', Rubus idaeus 'Dorman Red', Rubus fruticosus, Buxus microphylla var. koreana x B. sempervirens, Buxus harlandii, and Diospyros virginiana during a 14-week experiment period.
Keywords:Crapemyrtle, crapemyrtle bark scale, developmental stages, host range
Turning Science into Business: A 40-Year Perspective on Micropropagation

Author: Gayle R. Ladiser Suttle

PP: 177-180

H: Abstract
The talk I presented to the Eastern Region this year was a pictorial story of our journey at Microplant over the past 40 years in the field of commercial micropropagation. My talk covered some of the most important de-velopments, disasters, and discoveries we have experienced along the way. Microplant is owned by Treco® and Peter K. McGill.
Keywords:Commercial micropropagation, biotechnology, business development
Meadow Gardens: Grass Landscapes from Seed

Author: Marc Pastorek

PP: 285-294

Creating native meadow habitat gardens of perennial plant communities grown from seed has been an effective approach for developing sustainable landscape designs in city parks and open spaces. A grassland garden can easily contain fifty or more species. Optimum conditions oc-casionally yield as many as 15 species per square meter. Manual weeding of the garden is not recommended as this activi-ty causes soil disturbance, which is to be kept to a minimum. Controlled burns reduce weedy species and enhance the growth of fire-tolerant (pyrogenic) species. Using seed from species that originate from similar ecological zones to your general locality will maximize adaptability and resilience of the grassland garden landscape. It is highly desirable to have grass species that establish and compete well in the landscape. Successful seed mixes for the U.S. Gulf Coastal Region include: Andropogon and Schizachirium, along with short-statured Panicum, Dicanthelium, and Paspalum. Grasses are the fabric that flowering plants are wo-ven into. Reconstructing naturalized grassland landscapes is an effective horticultural approach to managing land for biodiversity, and equally important: reconnecting people with nature.
Keywords:Grassland landscapes, grass garden landscapes, landscapes from seed, native gardens, natural garden design and management, naturalized gardens, prairie gardening in the Southern U.S., pushy perennials, seed propagation
IPPS European Exchange 2018

Author: Lindsay Day

PP: 246-249

“Too seek and share” is not only the motto of the International Plant Propagation Society (IPPS), but a foundational principal that the horticulture industry has cultivated for many years. The SR-IPPS (Southern Region of North America) embodies this message with its “Early-Career SR-IPPS Professional Exchange Program” with the IPPS European Region (ER-IPPS). In 2018 I was selected to represent the SR-IPPS as their delegate. This paper is my report.
Keywords:Early-Career Professional Exchange Program, European Region-IPPS (ER-IPPS), Southern Region of North America-IPPS (SR-IPPS), gardens, retail and wholesale nurseries
Foliar Indole-3-Butyric Acid Rooting Hormone Application and Cost Analysis

Author: Jeffrey C. Martindell

PP: 154-157

Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) is an auxin that promotes root initiation. Specifically, in this trial Hortus IBA Water Soluble Salts were used as an overspray of hormone on 32,464.5 sq. ft. At Decker’s Nursery, foliar rooting hormone is used on both hard and softwood cuttings with astonishing results. The information presented is from a complete overspray of hormone on hardwood winter cuttings.
Keywords:Rooting hormone, cost analysis, woody plants, hormone application method
Commercial Production and Showing Daffodils

Author: Johnny Walkers

PP: 383-385

I am often quoted as saying that the UK grows more daffodils than the rest of the world put together. This was certainly true 20 years ago and probably still is today as the UK area has increased slightly and the other major country has decreased its daffodil area. The crop in the UK is grown for both bulb and flower production for home and export markets. There are 3 main areas of production in the UK. Traditionally growers in the Cornwall (the south-west) were small family units and grew daffodils mainly for flowers with the bulb very much a secondary consideration while in Lincolnshire (the eastern counties) the bulb was all important and the flower a secondary consideration as the bulbs were used for producing early flowers in glasshouses. That has all changed with the flowers being important to all areas as glasshouse production has declined.
Keywords:Narcissus, forcing, Chelsea flower show, bulbs.
Roses of New Zealand

Author: Hayden Foulds

PP: 414-421

New Zealand has a very strong gardening culture based on its English heritage, mild climate and fertile soils. One of the most popular cultivated plants are cultivars and species of the genus Rosa which are grown for their wide variety of flower colours and forms, plant types and that many are also fragrant.
Keywords:Rosa, breeding
Ornamental Production at Bordon Hill Nurseries

Author: Geoff Caesar

PP: 354-356

Having spent over 30 years in the nursery stock sector growing shrubs, trees, climbers and perennials for the retail market I joined Bordon Hill Nurseries growing seed and cutting raised plugs for the grower market. Whilst similar in some ways, we grow an ornamental plant destined for the retail market. The sector and the product are very different. My presentation explores the challenges the sector and in particular the grower faces and how Bordon Hill works to meet these challenges.
Keywords:Management, crop scheduling, WhatsApp, Plant nutrition
Somatic Embryogenesis of Rare Stewartia Species and Elite Cultivars

Author: Heather J. Gladfelter, Jack Johnston, Dayton Wilde, and Scott Me

PP: 258-266

The methods of somatic embryogenesis proved successful for five Asian and two North American Stewartia species. Immature embryos were used as explants and cultured on gelled WPM basal medium with and without PGRs. Within 3-4 weeks embryogenic callus was produced from the immature embryo explants and these contained tiny developing somatic embryos. The embryogenic callus was propagated via liquid culture and plated on maturation media (WPM basal nutrient) devoid of PGRs for production and development of somatic embryos. Following the maturation process the embryos were placed on germination medium which was the same as maturation medium devoid of glutamine but supplemented with 0.25% activated charcoal. After 3-6 weeks, the somatic embryos were germinated and continued to develop into somatic seedlings and were transferred to soil and acclimated to the greenhouse and natural environment.
Keywords:Liquid culture, somatic embryos, woody plant basal medium (WPM)
A Legacy of Elm Improvement at Morton Arboretum

Author: Kim Shearer

PP: 170-176

In 1922, after some consultation with Director of Arnold Arboretum Charles Sprague Sargent, Joy Morton founded the Arboretum on a 400-acre private estate in the country side of Lisle, Illinois just west of Chicago. Morton was best known for his founding of the Morton Salt Company but wanted to leave behind a lasting legacy that would have a positive impact. Morton was the son of J. Sterling Morton, originator of Arbor Day and Secretary of Agriculture under President Cleveland, and Caroline Joy French, an avid gardener. Their family motto “Plant Trees” proved to be a driving force for Morton as he approached retirement. By the time Morton passed in 1934, the Arboretum had already grown to 735 acres and included an herbarium, library, collection of living plants, nurseries, and a staff to manage it all.
Keywords:Elm, Ulmus, breeding, hybridization, new plants
Gardens by the Bay Orchid Programme

Author: Mei Leng Lim, Andrea Kee, Jassy Phua, Siti Nurziana Yacob, Yu Qi

PP: 423-426

Gardens by the Bay (GB) – a garden of 101 hectares in the new downtown area of Singapore, is a national garden and a premier horticulture attraction for local and international visitors. The Gardens comprise Bay South, Bay East and Bay Central Gardens. The Bay South Garden, largest of the three gardens is 54 hectares and opened its doors to the public in 2012. Bay South Garden con¬sists of a series of thematic outdoor gardens, the Supertrees and cooled conservatories. The outdoor thematic gardens consist of 2 series of gardens; The Heritage Gardens and World of Plants are collections of landscape gardens to highlight the history and culture of Singapore’s ethic groups and colonial past. The World of Plants, on the other hand, de¬picts the system of how plants adapted to adverse environments. The Supertrees are giant tree-like structures measuring 25 to 50 meters in height and planted with vertical greenery. Conservatories are climate-controlled glasshouses where sub-tropical and temperature plants are grown and featured in landscape display.
Keywords:Trials, shows, hybridization, flowering
Propagation of Hardy Begonia (Begonia grandis subsp. evansiana) from Seeds and Tubers

Author: Zoe Schroeder, Sharon Kester, and Robert L. Geneve

PP: 167-169

Hardy begonia (Begonia grandis subsp. evansiana) has received a revival in popularity as a shade-tolerant, summer flowering perennial. It produces seeds and aerial tubers late in the summer under short daylengths. There is limited information on the propagation of hardy begonia related to seed or tuber propagation. Seed harvested from dried capsules collected from fruit showing some observable natural desiccation had a high percentage of filled seeds and these seeds germinated in less than 1 week. Aerial tubers form in leaf axils and tuber size varied based on node location on the plant. Tubers of various sizes were placed in plastic bags and placed at 10℃ for 0 to 10 weeks. Tubers did not form plants without a chilling treatment. Plant formation began after 4 weeks of chilling, but the highest plantlet formation occurred after 8 and 10 weeks of chilling.
Keywords:Seed germination, dormancy, hardy perennials, tubers
Transition to responsibly sourced growing media in UK horticulture (CP 138)

Author: Chloe Whiteside

PP: 386-387

CP138 “Transition to responsibly sourced growing media use within UK Horticulture” is a five year project funded by Defra, AHDB Horticulture, Growing Media Manufacturers and Growers. The project is led by RSK ADAS Ltd with project partners Quadram Institute Bioscience and Stockbridge Technology Centre. The project will develop confidence in the use of alternative growing media materials to diversify a market that has been dominated by high performing peat products for many years. The pressure to seek other materials has come from a combination of government environmental policy and consumer preference for plant products produced in “peat alternatives”.
Keywords:Integrated pest management, disease control, computing systems, biocontrol
New Plant Forum 2019 – Eastern Region IPPS

Author: Charles Tubesing

PP: 181-190

New plant introductions for 2019 are presented
Keywords:New plants, Iris, Lysimachia, Carpinus, Diospyros, Bouteloua, Panicum, Pennisetum, Aesculus. Buxus, Rhus, Syringa, Tilia
Growing Natives: Lessons Learned

Author: Kyle Banas

PP: 83-89

At Pizzo Native Plant Nursery (PNPN) we grow over 450 species of plants native to the Midwest and Eastern United States. We are a propagation and liner producer of herbaceous perennials focusing mostly on wetland, prairie and woodland species. Native plants can be a difficult term to define and not the goal of this presentation but for simplicity let’s just say they are species that evolved naturally within an ecosystem. PNPN is located on 40 acres in Dekalb County Illinois. Illinois is a state in which less than 0.1% of the land area was left unaffected by agriculture or urbanization. Fortunately, for us and those in horticulture, one result of this massive loss of native ecosystem and habitat has spurred a re-newed interest placed on these endangered landscapes. This has resulted in the Midwest becoming a hotspot for ecosystem restoration and the use of native plants in the landscape. It makes sense that one of the most disturbed landscapes in the country would hunger the most for restoration or at least some sense of place to be put back into the landscape.
Keywords:Native plants, genetic diversity, propagation, herbaceous plants, production, ecosystem restoration
Research Roadmap Created for Environmental Horticulture

Author: James S. Owen, Jr., Anthony V. LeBude, Jill M. Calabro, Jennifer

PP: 70-72

H: Abstract
Environmental horticulture, or the green i-dustry, is an integral component of specialty crops and agriculture. In fact, our industry generates one third of both all specialty-crop revenue (over $19 billion each year!) and its workforce. Yet, our industry receives only 12% of federal funds earmarked for specialty crops from USDA Agricultural Research Service and USDA’s Specialty Crop Research Initiative. The Horticultural Research Institute (HRI) recognized this disparity and sought a means to bring federal funding levels more in line with our economic contributions.
Keywords:Horticultural Research Institute, Specialty Crop Research Initiative, AmericanHort, consumer preferences
Following in the Footsteps of Legends! Lessons Learned Through Four Generations

Author: Andrew King

PP: 274-279

Through four generations of horticulture, the King family has been influenced and inspired by a number of the legends of the horticulture industry. These included influential nursery professionals, plantsmen and academics that all had one thing in common: a deep love and respect for horticulture. The accomplishments of Lynn Lowery, Benny Simpson, Dr. Barton Warnock, and others shaped the practice of horticulture in the Lone Star State. These legends also taught many valuable lessons to many willing students along the way. Their influence and accomplishments are outlined in the current work.
Keywords:Lynn Lowrey, multi-generation family business, Benny Simpson, Barton Warnock, native plants, plant collectors, wildscapes
Development of a Nursery for a Wetland Project in Oman

Author: David Hancock

PP: 422

The oilfields of Oman, along with others in the Middle East and elsewhere in the world, produce large amounts of ground water as a by-product of the oil extraction process. This oil contaminated water is often dealt with by return to the deep oil field aquifers. Petroleum Development Oman has established the largest constructed wetland in the world by engaging a German environmental consultant to design and construct a vegetated wetland to purify the oil-laden water to avoid the use of fossil fuel power sources to pump the contaminated water deep underground. The volumes of water are enormous, and the success of the project is demonstrated not only by the water purity of the wetland outfall but also by the wetland supporting extensive wildlife that otherwise would not be present and to offset habitat loss in other migratory zones.
Keywords:Middle East, water purity, ecology
Opportunities in Commercial Hemp Production

Author: Robert L. Geneve

PP: 127-131

Industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa) has been used for food and fiber for centuries and was an important crop to Kentucky and other U.S. States prior to the 1950s. Subsequently, the U.S.A. imposed restrictions on Cannabis and related products until the 2014 Farm Bill began the process of making industrial hemp a legal agricultural commodity (Johnson, 2015). To separate recreational and medicinal Cannabis from industrial hemp, the 2018 Farm Bill clarified the legal definition of industrial hemp as containing less than 0.3% THC (the major psychoactive cannabinoid in Cannabis).
Keywords:Cannabis, CBD, cannabidiol, fiber, grain.
Biosecurity: Who Wants to Be A Millionaire?

Author: Lisa Burton

PP: 38-43

Training people in Plant Health is vi- tal no matter what sector of horticulture you’re in. if a business doesn’t have knowl- edgeable staff, who can confidently identify and then apply the right control methods, at the right time, you will be ditching a lot of sub-standard plants or worse, your reputation as a quality grower.
Keywords: Education, weeds, pests, diseases, New Zealand
Development of F1-hybrid Strawberry of Seed Propagation Type Named ‘Yotsuboshi’ by Collaborative Breeding among Institutes

Author: H. Kitamura,T. Mori, J. Kohori, T. Inokuchi, I. Kato, K. Sone, M

PP: 49-50


‘Yotsuboshi’, a seed propagating type of strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duchesne) was developed from the collab¬orative breed-ing program including four institutes of Mie, Kagawa and Chiba prefectures and National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NARO) and registered as a new variety in 2017 in japan (No.25605). It is an F1-hybrid, who’s maternal (ovary) and paternal (pollen) parents are ‘Miebohon 1 gou’ developed in Mie prefecture and ‘A8S4-147’ developed in Kagawa prefecture.

Keywords:Everbearing strawberry, Fragaria, breeding.

Spirit of IPPS

Author: T. Eddie Welsh

PP: 435-437


In the mid-20th Century, Jim Wells an English nurseryman transplanted to the East Coast of the USA got together with other likeminded propagators and suggested setting up a Society to promote the craft of propagating plants that is starting new plants from seed, cuttings, grafting and tissue culture. The idea was to hold annual conferences where members gave talks on their special techniques for propagation and growing plants. These papers are edited and published as Combined Proceedings known as the Black Book. Regions also hold field days to visit nurseries and gardens where ideas flourish and friendships are made.

Keywords:Sharing, knowledge, plant propagation, membership

Improving Pest Management for the Nursery Industry

Author: Chris O&rsquoConnor

PP: 11-16

Pressure on the industry both locally and globally to use pesticides in an environmentally and socially responsible manner is in-creasing. Such pressures have the potential to cause damage to the industry’s generally positive reputation and negatively impact our social license to operate, and some industry actors are already responding.
Keywords: IPM, sustainable systems, pesticides, Biosecurity
I Have a Drone, Now What Can I Do with It?

Author: Joe Mari Maja and James Robbins

PP: 280-284

There will be increasing opportunities in us-ing drones, small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS), in green industry production systems. The potential usage of drone activity include: crop monitoring, (application of chemicals and nutrients, asset tracking and management), plant inventory, and market-ing and sales. Information is included on types of aircraft, flight preparation, and image processing – stitching.
Keywords:aerial images, drone, green industry, nursery, sUAS - unmanned aircraft system, UAV- unmanned aircraft vehicle
How Do you Say That in Swahili? Meeting the Challenges of an International Workforce

Author: Kata Kre&szlig Wallace

PP: 309-314

Over half the employees at Hoffman Nurse-ry come from five different countries and combined, speak seven different languages. We have worked through Church World Services (CWS), which helps refugees and immigrants find security and opportunity in the U.S. With our international workforce, challenges center around communication and cultural differences. Our employees range from those who speak basic English to those who understand almost none. Most of our international employees work in our produc-tion department. Improving communication includes identifying key translators, focusing on basic work language, and using images and visuals. Apart from language, cultural differences can lead to miscommunications and poor performance. Fortunately, we have found ways to manage and work with those differences. Three approaches that have been successful include: 1) support and accom-modation, 2) empathy: understanding their perspective, and 3) helping them acclimate and learn the system. Our employees and company benefit by helping them adjust to our workplace and understand our culture.
Keywords:Acclimating personnel, communication, cultural differences, images, learning the sys-tem, key translators, language differences, visuals
Auxin Concentration and Cutting Submersion Duration Impact Survivability and Root Response of Florida Azalea

Author: Jenny B. Ryals, Patricia R. Knight, Daryl R. Chastain, Lloyd E.

PP: 295-300

Florida azalea (Rhododendron austrinum) is a deciduous azalea native to northern Florida, coastal Alabama, southern Georgia, and southeastern Mississippi. To provide growers with relevant cutting propagation recommendations, the objective of this research was to determine optimal commercial auxin concentration and submersion timing on softwood stem cuttings. The auxin used was Hortus IBA Water Soluble Salts™ (Hortus IBA) at 0, 1000, 2500, 5000, 7500, or 10000 ppm IBA. Submersion durations were 0, 1, 6, 12, or 24 hours with 0 receiving a 5-sec basal quick-dip. Duration of submersion effected root percentage (P<.0001), number of roots (P=0.01), and average length of the three longest roots (P=0.04). There was an interaction between auxin concentration and submersion duration for root quality (P=0.006), cutting quality (P<.0001) and growth indices (P<.0001). Results indicate that softwood Florida azalea cuttings had a better rooting response when treated with a 5-sec basal quick-dip and auxin concentration was 2500.
Keywords:Auxin application methods, basal quick-dip, Hortus IBA Water Soluble Salts™, IBA, immersion, propagation, Rhododendron austrinum.