Volume 66

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Plant production system: testing and implementation©

Author: E.-L. Louw

PP: 3

Plant Production System (PPS) is a web-based database which helps to organise nursery tasks in specific weeks, from propagation to potting as well as create work lists and capture completed work daily in order to have control over stock in the nursery. This talk introduced and explained PPS.
Arnelia farms nursery produces close to 150 different taxa in various genera including Protea, Leucospermum, Leucadendron, Erica, Telopea, Chamelaucium, and Bougainvillea. Each taxon has its own nutritional and management requirements to achieve high quality outcomes. However, keeping track of these tasks as well as additional tasks of weeding, growth regulating, and spacing is a challenge in an ever expanding nursery. With most taxa pinching, pruning, or spacing must be completed by specific dates and if these are not met the planned outcome is not achieved. Historically, everything was managed with the use of Microsoft
Shoots formation by rhizome culture of Anemone keiskeana©

Author: S. Horai and H. Ohashi

PP: 145

Anemone keiskeana Maxim. is a perennial plant classified in the Ranunculaceae, that grows in western part of Japan. The standard flower has 12-22 pale bluish purple sepals, lacks petals, though the flower color has rich variations, including white, pale pink, and pale yellowish brown.
The leaves emerge from the rhizomes in autumn; the scapes appear and bloom in March. Leaves wither and the rhizomes go into a dormant period in May and are therefore summer dormant. Anemone keiskeana often develops "brood buds" in the axils of the rhizomes. Brood buds are microtuber-like bodies that originate from lateral buds and in Japanese are called "mukago". These buds don
New Plant Forum©

Author: C. Vanden Bosch, T. Brotzman, S. Castorani, B. French, S. French

PP: 255

Andropogon gerardii ‘Blackhawks’ PPAF
Berberis thunbergii f. atropurpurea ‘NCBT1’, Sunjoy Mini MaroonTM Japanese barberry PPAF
Callicarpa ‘NCCX2’, Pearl Glam® beautyberry PPAF; CBRAF
Calycanthus floridus var. glaucus ‘Burgundy Spice’ PPTBS
Carpinus caroliniana ‘JN Select A’, Fire KingTM musclewood PPAF
Coreopsis integrifolia ‘Last Dance’
Coreopsis tripteris ‘Gold Standard’
Erigeron pulchellus ‘Lynnhaven Carpet’
Eriogonum allenii ‘Little Rascal’
Geum ‘Coppertone Punch’ PPAF
Hamamelis vernalis HAP#1002 (H. vernalis ‘Holden’ × H. vernalis ‘Amethyst’)
Hamamelis virginiana ‘Ice Queen’
Hamamelis virginiana × H. vernalis ‘Winter Champagne’
Hibiscus ‘Rosina’, PollypetiteTM hibiscus PPAF; CBRAF
Ilex opaca ‘Weston’
Monarda punctata
Pachysandra procumbens ‘Silver Streak’
Sedum ‘Peace and Joy’ PPAF
Sedum ‘Pillow Talk’ PPAF
Viburnum ‘NCVX1’, Shiny DancerTM viburnum PPAF
Viburnum cassinoides ‘SMNVCDD’, Lil’ Ditty® witherod viburnum PPAF; cbraf
Micropropagation of Vitex agnus-castus©

Author: N.K.A. Nor Hisham Shah and M. Bridgen

PP: 275

Abstract: The nutrient media used were WPM and MS supplemented with 0.5 & #956;M IAA and 5 & #956;M BA. Shoot tip explants were used for establishing in vitro cultures. In the two subsequent subcultures the initial explant was cultured undivided in WPM and MS media again with 0.5 & #956;M IAA and 5 & #956;M BA. In the establishment stage 2-3 new microshoots were formed, while in the 1st and 2nd subculture 5-7 and 11-14 microshoots were produced, respectively. There were no differences between WPM and MS media in terms of microshoot formation in the establishment stage and the 1st subculture, whereas, in the 2nd subculture more microshoots were produced in the MS medium. Microshoots (microcuttings) derived from these subcultures were transferred for rooting to MS medium with 0 or 0.5 & #956;M IBA. Rooting was 44% in medium without IBA and 86% in medium containing 0.5 & #956;M of IBA. Rooted microshoots were transplanted to soil mixture in pots and young plantlets were successfully established in the greenhouse.
Propagation of Cannabis sativa for commercial production©

Author: A. Casillas

PP: 157

Cannabis sativa (
The edible landscape: an interesting market niche©

Author: C.E.H. Coker

PP: 47

With the growing trend to eat local, in-season foods it is no wonder customers are looking to incorporate more edible plants into their landscape design. The trend has sparked the return of edible landscaping?which is all about incorporating edible herbs and flowers as well as plants, trees and shrubs that produce vegetables and fruits?in residential gardens. While the concept is gaining popularity now, edible landscaping is really just as old as gardening. In fact, ancient Persian gardens consisted of a variety of edible and ornamental plants. And medieval gardens took the concept to a whole other level with most gardens housing an array of fruit and vegetable plants, edible flowers and medicinal herbs. Today, with a newfound focus on health, sustainability and environmental protection, edible landscaping is a trend that?s here to stay.
An interesting way to expand your market may be to incorporate value-added service to your business plan. If your business includes edibles or ?edimentals? as they are sometimes called, you may consider offering edible landscape consultation to your clients. Your service may include design, as well as installation and maintenance with a focus on offering edible annuals, perennials, trees, shrubs, and even ornamental arrangements.
Using brands to launch new products: a breeding company

Author: N. Hamill

PP: 229

Bailey Nurseries, Inc. owns and manages three consumer plant brands including Endless Summer® Series hydrangeas, First Editions® trees and shrubs, and Easy Elegance® roses. We use these brands as the primary means for introducing new products developed by our breeding company, PII, and by external breeding partners throughout the world.
Using BloomStruck® Hydrangea macrophylla as an example, I will talk about how we used the Endless Summer® brand to introduce this new plant.
All-America Selections winners for 2016: ornamentals and edibles with proven performance for North American gardens©

Author: D. Blazek and E.K. Blythe

PP: 167

Twelve cultivars, including two ornamental crops and ten edible crops, became All-America Selections (AAS) National Award Winners for 2016. In addition, six cultivars, including two ornamental crops and four edible crops, became AAS Regional Award winners for 2016. AAS awards are based on impartial trials at over 80 trial ground across North America.
Evaluation, propagation, and tissue culture of hybrid white oaks (Quercus) for the urban environment©

Author: M. Schwartz Sax, N. Bassuk, B. Denig, and M. Bridgen

PP: 271

Asexual propagation of oaks has proven difficult for the majority of Quercus species using traditional methods of grafting or rooting cuttings, with the exception of Q. robur. In order to develop improved oaks, clonal propagation methods are required along with an increased diversity of Quercus germplasm.
Cornell’s Urban Horticulture Institute has been working towards addressing limitations in propagation and germplasm diversity through its long-term white oak breeding program. This program was initially developed between 2004-2006, when over 345 unique genotypes of hybrid white oaks were generated using 40-parent species from North America, Europe, and Asia.
The goal of this project has been to develop elite oaks with enhanced characteristics such as stress tolerance (drought, high pH, cold hardiness, pest, and disease resistance) and ornamental quality. On an annual basis, stock plants are coppiced, forcing juvenile shoots from the stumps. These shoots can then be used for tissue culture establishment, to induce rooting using a stool bed method or allowed to grow to be evaluated.
The U.S. National Arboretum was assigned to be the International Cultivar Registration Authority for Cercis©

Author: D. Kidwell-Slak and M. Pooler

PP: 273

Redbuds are a significant nursery crop for much of the American nursery industry. Eastern redbud (Cercis canadensis) are endemic and widely distributed from Canada to Florida. Southern variants (subsp. texensis and var. mexicana) grow natively in the southwest and a western species (C. canadensis var. orbiculata) grow natively west of the Rocky Mountains. In addition to the native American taxa, several Asian taxa are cultivated and represent a significant nursery crop in the United States. Although cultivated for over a century, there has recently been a large increase in the number of named cultivars on the market. With the large increase in named cultivars, it will be beneficial to the green industry and gardeners to create a checklist with cultivar description and general identifying information to help differentiate cultivars.
Palletised nursery logistics©

Author: D. Hancock

PP: 1

These proceedings represent an adaption of a pictorial power point presentation made at the South Africa conference of 2016.
The Natural Area Nursery specialises in growing Perth native species from seed for restoration, revegetation, and landscaping.
In 2013 the Natural Area Nursery in Perth, Australia established a distinct propagation area and nursery enclosure to facilitate a new approach to the sowing, germination, and handling logistics with the intention of improving efficiency, reducing staff work load, and handling strain.
The availability of low cost plastic pallets arising from the Western Australian mining boom combined with a large hardstand area gave rise to the concept. Central also to the plan was the expertise developed by the nursery in the germination treatments of many species and the availability of air seeding equipment.
Propagation mix is loaded from soil bin to a hopper and conveyor external to the processing shed.
The air seeding line is comprised of conveyor soil feed, automated composite tray dispenser, tray filler, compactor, and finishing surface brush.
American chestnut restoration©

Author: K. Collins, S. Fitzsimmons, T. Saielli, and J. Westbrook

PP: 215

The American Chestnut Foundation, along with many collaborators, has pursued three main strategies for species conservation and restoration: traditional breeding; genetic modification and biotechnology; and biocontrol through hypovirulence. Each of these efforts to restore the American chestnut has included propagating and planting hundreds of thousands of chestnuts in research plantings across the landscape. Direct-seeding chestnuts is the most common planting method, however use of bare-root and containerized stock is also standard. Grafting and micropropagation techniques have been refined within the past 20 years. Rooting cuttings is the propagation technique which has largely eluded successful application (Keys, 1978; Galic et al., 2014), and would be an indispensable tool for various aspects of restoration efforts should it be eveloped.
Breeding American chestnuts for resistance to chestnut blight has been on-going in some capacity since the early twentieth century.
Gulf Coast Appalachia—a new frontier: exploring the trees and shrubs of the Red Hills of Alabama©

Author: B. Green

PP: 337

What imagery springs to mind when meditating south Alabama? Sun-bleached white beaches, deck chairs beneath the scant shade of swaying palms, azaleas blossoming between the low lying limbs of moss strewn live oaks? Maybe a "cheeseburger in paradise" along our self-described
The response of kamanomano (Cenchrus agrimonioides var. agrimonioides) root and shoot growth to pre-plant hormone soaking and simulated hydromulch establishment procedure©

Author: O.C. Baldos, J. DeFrank and S.B. Lukas

PP: 179

Kamanomano (Cenchrus agrimonioides var. agrimonioides) is a federally endangered, stoloniferous, perennial grass endemic to the islands of Oahu, Lanai, and Maui. Its low-growing habit and drought tolerance make it a recognized species for restoration and a potential species for roadside revegetation. Large scale revegetation with kamanomano requires an efficient means of propagation and planting. Hydrocapping of vegetative propagules is a commonly utilized method for establishing turf, but very few studies have looked at its use with native Hawaiian plants. In this study, the feasibility of hydromulch capping of stem cuttings as a means of large-scale planting and pre-plant hormone soaks as a means to improve rooting were evaluated for kamanomano. Apical stem cuttings (20 cm long with leaves intact) were collected from nursery-grown stock plants and soaked for 24 h in either: 1) tap water; 2) 1:20 dilution of Dip ’N Grow [500 ppm indolebutyric acid, 250 ppm naphthalene acetic acid][; or 3) 1:10 dilution of Dip’N Grow [1000 ppm indolebutyric acid, 500 ppm naphthalene acetic acid[. Treated and untreated (unsoaked control) cuttings were spread in seedling trays filled with potting medium. The cut stems were covered with hydromulch at a rate of 3,300 kg ha-1. Percent rooting and number of shoots were recorded 45 days after planting. Results indicate that soaking in Dip ’N Grow increased rooting percentage and shoot number. Field establishment protocols should include a 24-h preplant soak in a 1:10 dilution of Dip ’N Grow to enhance rooting and shoot growth.
Effects of a plant enhancement liquid, FFC Vegemake©, for plant growth©

Author: K. Ichikawaa, J. Ueda, and T. Fujimori

PP: 133

Since 1984, Akatsuka Garden Company has focused on the behavior of certain ions, especially iron ions in water and interactions of water molecules with them. We have continued research on various solutions to not only accelerate plant growth, but also activate physiological functions of plants. Based on this research, we have developed FFC materials such as "FFC-Ceramics" (for water improvement), "FFC-Ace" (for soil improvement) and others.
In addition, many agricultural producers in Japan have been utilizing FFC materials to rejuvenate plants and increase profits. Those producers have also explored many other possible methods of using FFC materials and consequently found good ways that benefit their actual production sites.
Challenges of introducing new plants©

Author: G. Spencer

PP: 289

New plant introductions are the lifeblood of the ornamental horticulture industry. Growers and retailers at all points in the supply chain can gain commercial advantage and retain customer interest by continuously improving and updating their product range by offering novel crops. New introductions can offer other advantages too, such as reduced production costs and faster production times.
It is important for breeders and introducers of new plants to understand the most important elements for success.
It may seem obvious, but the first and most important element of the new plant introduction process is to ensure that the plant is good.
Weed management assessment for public flower beds©

Author: K. Matsushima, C. Hirama, Y. Mitarai, and Y. Koike

PP: 127

A lack of participants and techniques for weeding of flowerbeds in public spaces has multiplied the difficulties inherent in local social gardening. This study was conducted to ascertain a weed threshold for management of flowerbeds in public spaces from the relation between flower plant growth and the amount of weeds remaining after weed removal activities. We planted blue salvia seedlings (Salvia farinacea) in a field. Later, at 31 days and 85 days after transplantation of the plants, we measured the blue salvia plant height and plant coverage. Additionally, we measured the dry matter weight of remaining weeds after 20 people had removed weeds from flowerbeds. Results show that remaining weed dry matter weight and rate of remaining weeds at 31 days after transplantation were 1.4 g m-2 and 1.6% when the plant height and plant coverage of blue salvia were 10.4 cm and 8.3%. The same measures at 85 days after transplantation were 10.8 g m-2 and 18.2% when the plant height and plant coverage of blue salvia were 47.9 cm and 56.0%. A significant positive correlation was found between the blue salvia plant coverage and the rate of remaining weeds. Results obtained using linear regression suggest a remaining weed threshold for flowerbed management based on the plant coverage of the flower plants being planted.
An introduction to pot-in-pot nursery production©

Author: R.L. Geneve

PP: 19


The nursery industry is highly dependent on container plant production. Utilizing sustainable inputs and adopting sustainable practices have become a significant trend for horticultural production world-wide. This has led to a significant increase in pot-in-pot nursery production in the USA, especially for large caliper trees traditionally produced as field-produced balled and burlapped crops (McNiel et al., 1996). Pot-in-pot production is a combination of traditional container and field production where the production container is placed within an in-ground socket pot.

Pot-in-pot production was originally developed as the "Minnesota System" in the 1980s as an alternative to field and above-ground container production for tap-rooted shade trees (Pellet et al., 1980; Pellet, 1983). The system proved to be equally useful for general shade and flowering tree production (Parkerson, 1990).

Climate change: risks and opportunities in nursery production©

Author: L. Burton

PP: 5

The purpose of my presentation is to bring some of the latest information to you about the predicted impacts of climate change on South Africa, with a particular focus on how it may affect the nursery industry. Plant growth is driven by environmental factors, and so any change to the environment will impact on production and therefore our livelihood as growers of living products.
Everyone here has heard of climate change and you will all have your own opinions about the issue and possible solutions. After a while, hearing about climate change can become like background noise; too big a problem to be able to directly relate to your own life and business decisions. So while most people acknowledge that climate change is happening, it
Propagation of challenging plants: creating a system that works©

Author: J. Johnson

PP: 219

I define a challenging plant to propagate as one that others have had problems propagating or one that doesn
Innovation through adversity: tricks of the horticultural trade©

Author: D. Austin

PP: 69

Often underrated, the horticulture industry is one of diverse opportunities and one which accommodates some of the most innovative problem solvers of any industry in operation today. The purpose of this report is to both share some of my experiences with such opportunities and innovation but also spur discussion and creativity within the International Plant Propagators’ Society
Scheduling propagation year round©

Author: D. Threatt

PP: 331

Baucom’s Nursery is a company in North Carolina that grows a diverse product line. We grow annuals, poinsettias, mums, cactus, ornamentals, Easter lilies, roses, azaleas, pansies, and an assortment of other plants. It is a tremendous challenge to schedule these plants in propagation with our objective to have them saleable at the optimum time. We propagate from cuttings every week of the year. Below is a list crops propagated on a monthly basis.
Panel discussion on branding©

Author: S. Castorani

PP: 227

Brands and branding influence every purchase we make in our daily lives. Traditionally, the horticulture industry has been resistant to develop and market plant brands. Though this is slowly changing, the industry has lagged behind other consumer products when it comes to offering branded products at retail.
Let’s look at herbs and roses as an example. At our retail store, Gateway Garden Center, we sell herbs in various sized pots from 3 in. to 1-gal containers. About 12 years ago we began selling a branded herb line called Sarah
Evaluating hydrangea performance©

Author: M. Condon

PP: 241

The Test Garden got its start at the hydrangeas 2015 Conference that was held at Heritage in July of last year. This was the first major all hydrangea event in the USA since 2005 and featured a strong technical program with supportive participants and attendees, and it took place in a very favorable cultural location for hydrangeas. All positives! The idea of creating a "Test Garden" was conceived and initiated by Dr. Mike Dirr. The idea fell on very fertile soil too as Heritage was already committed to expanding their hydrangea presence.
So let’s fast forward to July 2016. Great ideas move quickly and Heritage Museums & Gardens is now home to a national hydrangea test garden where new hybrid cultivars of hydrangeas will be planted, grown, and studied by professional growing experts from across the country. Phase 1 of this 5-year development program was completed early in July. This initial project phase was extensive in content and totally supports the Heritage goal of the North American Hydrangea Test Garden becoming the most comprehensive collection of the genus in the United States. The Test Garden was dedicated and opened on 12 July 2016.
Fluorescent and LED lighting effects on hydroponically grown ‘Winter Density’ bibb lettuce©

Author: K.D. Kobayashi and T.D. Amore

PP: 181

Food safety, environmental impacts, and efficient energy usage are increasing concerns in horticultural production systems. Producing lettuce under artificial lighting could be a solution addressing these concerns. Light-emitting diodes (LED) offer the advantages of a narrow light spectrum, low power consumption, and little heat production. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of different light sources on the growth of compact ‘Winter Density’ bibb lettuce in a non-circulating hydroponic system. ‘Winter Density’ bibb lettuce seeds were started in Oasis cubes under T5 high output fluorescent lighting in a lab. Seedlings were transferred to 5.1-cm net pots, which were placed in 1.9-L containers containing a hydroponic nutrient solution. The solution was composed of Hydro-Gardens’ (Colorado Springs, Colardo( Hobby Formula 10-8-22 hydroponic fertilizer with added magnesium sulfate (9.8% Mg). The lettuce seedlings were grown under red+blue+white LEDs with a light level of 121 & #956;mol m-2 s-1 and a photoperiod of 16 h. After 10 days, half of the plants in the containers were moved under T5 high output fluorescent lighting for 10 more days. The light level was 118 & #956;mol m-2 s-1 and the photoperiod was 16 h. At the end of the study, lettuce under LED lighting used significantly less hydroponic nutrient solution than those under fluorescent lighting. Biomass productivity (biomass produced per unit of nutrient solution used) was higher with LEDs. Electrical conductivity (EC) of the nutrient solution was lower in the LED treatment. However, there was no significant difference in the pH of the nutrient solution. Plant height, shoot dry weight, root dry weight, shoot:root ratio, total plant dry weight, partitioning of dry weight to the shoots, partitioning of dry weight to the roots, and SPAD readings did not significantly differ between light treatments. In conclusion, LED lighting was more efficient by using less nutrient solution and producing more biomass per unit of nutrient solution. Moving lettuce plants from initial LED lighting to later fluorescent lighting did not enhance the growth of hydroponically grown compact lettuce.
If I knew then what I know now©

Author: J. Barnett

PP: 53

If I knew then what I know now. I am Jan Barnett, the Managing Director of Bambina Rose NZ Ltd, which imports rose cultivars into New Zealand (NZ). We concentrate on the “tween”s sized roses
Threatened plant species: Amorphophallus titanum propagation©

Author: M. Coultera and R. Baldock

PP: 73

One of the most exciting plant species is the titan arum, Amorphophallus titanium, which can truly be regarded as a flagship species for botanic gardens. Wild populations suffer from increasing pressure on their natural habitat and botanic gardens can play an important role in the ex-situ conservation of the species.
Amorphophallus titanum is one of the most prominent plants in the plant kingdom. It has the largest unbranched inflorescence known and what looks like a single flower is in fact a group of flowers making up the inflorescence.
Using a novel cover crop blend to increase the sustainability of ornamental plant nursery production©

Author: T. Buechel and W. Hoch

PP: 269

Standard nursery ornamental tree production is conducted in fields maintained by extensive use of mechanical (tillage) and chemical (herbicide) inputs. Not only is this costly and labor-intensive, but multiple passes over fields results in soil compaction and formation of deep plow layers that impede drainage and root growth, and the absence of plant cover leads to soil erosion. Cover crops are a logical means of increasing sustainability, however studies have shown that the highly-competitive cover crops traditionally used in agronomic settings (e.g. buckwheat, winter rye, perennial ryegrass and trefoil) can reduce nursery crop growth. The tillage radish (Raphanus raphanistrum subsp. sativus), a relatively new cover crop to the U.S.A., is being used in agronomic settings to reduce soil compaction, hold nutrients, limit runoff, and reduce herbicide applications during the winter months.
Update on greenhouse coverings©

Author: J.W. Bartok, Jr.

PP: 205

The covering on a greenhouse allows us to provide an environment that enhances plant growth. The main purposes are to allow light energy through and to restrict heat from escaping. It also provides some wind protection.
The amount of light energy that is transmitted through a covering depends on the type of material, orientation and location of the greenhouse and the structural design. A comparison of covering materials is usually measured in photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). This includes the light spectrum that our eyes see.
Most glazing materials are now available with additives that diffuse light. Research has shown that although light transmission is reduced a few percent, the light will penetrate better into the mid leaf layers of tall crops on cloudy days. There is no reported difference in light transmission on sunny days. Diffuse light can also reduce scorching, lower container temperature, reduce fungal spores and decrease insect propagation.
What’s holding back the native shrub market?©

Author: J.D. Lubell

PP: 209

Native plant species provide support for pollinators and other ecological systems (Burghardt et al., 2009; Tallamy, 2007) and are a suitable landscape alternative to invasive plants (Gagliardi and Brand, 2007). Despite increased demand for native plants to use in developing sustainable landscapes, the pace of expansion of the native market has seemed to lag behind the apparent rise in interest (Becker, 2015). Some of the issues holding back the market for native shrubs include the need for education about landscape use, lack of liner sources for growers, poor quality of nursery stock, and lack of cultivars as well as perceived drawbacks of cultivar use.
Hardwood and softwood cutting propagation of MKR1, persimmon dwarfing rootstock©

Author: Z. Hejazi, S. Ishimura, C. Honsho, T. Tetsumura

PP: 97

‘MKR1’ is a newly released rootstock for persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.). In spite of dwarfism, some cultivars grafted onto it showed early fruit bearing and less physiological fruit drop (Ishimura et al., 2013). Cuttings of the persimmon were speculated to be difficult-to-root (Tao and Sugiura, 1992). However, recent studies indicated their high rooting percentages, particularly with cuttings from root-suckers (Tetsumura et al., 2000, 2001a, b, 2003). In the present studies, we showed some effective rooting treatments for the ‘MKR1’ adventitious root formation.
Morpho-histological consistency on petiole length elongation of Anthurium under partial shades©

Author: Z.K. Roni, S. Islam, A.M.M. Shamsuzzaman, A.F.J. Uddin, and K. S

PP: 137

In Anthurium, the consistency of partial shading is of crucial importance in relation to the elongation of petiole length, but the anatomical basis for these responses is a question. In this study, we investigated the effects of partial shade on the anatomical aspect of elongation changes in petioles by determining the changes in cell size, cell number, and total cell area. From a histological perspective, three developmental processes, cell size, cell numbers, and total cell area, are responsible for the length of a given petiole. The experiment was conducted by utilizing three shading treatments, i.e., full sunlight, 40#37; reduced light, and 60#37; reduced light. Morphological traits (plant height and petiole length), histological traits (cell size, cell number, and total cell area), characterizing the petioles, as well as the physiological traits (SPAD value and leaf area) characteristics were measured. We found that plant height, leaf area, and SPAD value increased linearly with increasing partial shade. In this context, cell size, cell number, and total cell area also increased with increased petiole elongation.
All particles matter: the impact of characterizing horticultural substrates©

Author: P.C. Bartley III, B.E. Jackson, and W.C. Fonteno

PP: 371

Knowledge of substrate particle size and shape is beneficial for reasons such as increasing product efficiency, ensuring specified standards, and maximizing plant growth. Classification of aggregate materials has long been analyzed on the basis of sieve analysis. Sieves work by separating aggregate materials by a particle’s 2nd smallest dimension (Allen, 1997). The material is then expressed as a cumulative or differential distribution curve which reflects the percent mass of the material retained or passed through a sieve (Weiner, 2011). Despite its simplistic nature, this is a very crude and rudimentary method of characterizing materials. There are drawbacks to sieve analysis such as: reduced efficacy in worn screens, finite number of sieves, time consuming, data subjected to human error, and no capacity for shape parameters (Rauch et al., 2002; Vaezi et al., 2012).
Since the turn of the millennium, digital analysis has gained interest in the fields of biosystems and civil engineering.
Effects of Tween® 20 on growth and drought tolerance of coleus ‘Wasabi’ (Plectranthus scutellarioides)©

Author: D.P. Greenwell, J.L. Sibley, A.F. Newby, C.W. Robinson, and D.J.


Water is essential for drinking, personal hygiene, power production plants, and agricultural food and animal production. Some 97.5% of the global water supply is unusable salt water. From the remaining 2.5% of fresh water, only a third can be withdrawn from the environment for use. Roughly 70% of all the fresh water drawn from the environment is used for irrigated agriculture (Seckler et al., 1998). Because irrigated agriculture consumes such a large percentage of the available fresh water, optimizing irrigation efficiency in all sectors of horticulture and agriculture is critical. Moe and Rheingans (2006) estimated that 50% less water could be used for irrigation if highly efficient irrigation practices were adopted.
One way that water use efficiency (WUE) on the physiological level can be enhanced is by decreasing the transpiration rate while increasing or maintaining a steady state of carbon fixation on a leaf level basis.
Compare the grafting methods for landscaping roses©

Author: M. Irimajiri

PP: 151

To improve the production quality of roses, several grafting methods were compared. Grafting trial was performed in a greenhouse (covered with single layer polyethylene film, 7.5 m wide, 27 m long) in Kochi Agricultural College. Grafting period was from February 1 to February 6, 2016. Tested rose cultivars were Rosa ‘Sympathie’ (rambling rose), ‘Ballerina’ (rambling rose), and ‘Sunblest’, Landora® hybrid tea rose (tree rose).
Woody ornamentals for a 21st century landscape: a Texas perspective©

Author: D. Creech

PP: 349

Stephen F. Austin University’s SFA Gardens comprises 128 acre (58 ha) of on-campus property at Stephen F. Austin State University (SFA), Nacogdoches, Texas. Tree, shrub, and herbaceous perennial evaluation at SFA Gardens is scattered across gardens and landscapes. Soils are generally well drained, slightly acidic, and the native flora is dominated by pine, oak, river birch, sweetgum, sycamore, Florida maple, hornbeam, elm, hackberry, pecan, and hickory.
Nacogdoches is Zone 8b with an average annual rainfall of 1219 mm (48 in.). June through August is characteristically hot and dry. In recorded history, 1 Sept. 2000 was the record high, 44.4°C (112°F), and 23 Dec. 1989 was the record low -17.8°C (0°F). In 2010 and 2011, Nacogdoches experienced all-time record drought and heat. The SFA Gardens lies in the floodplain of LaNana creek and flooding is a reality usually occurring every 3 to 5 years. However, we had two big floods in 2015 and one in 2016. All predictive NOAA and NASA models show Texas moving to hotter times, more dry spells and more heavy precipitation incidents. While Virginia is predicted to be a bit hotter—precipitation stays about the same and more frequent violent weather events are expected.
Trulieve: the production of medicinal marijuana in Florida©

Author: G. Hackney

PP: 341

This paper reports on the process of starting the first legal medical marijuana production and dispenser facility in northwest Florida—Trulieve. Trulieve is now a Florida licensed medical Cannabis provider, http://trulieve.com/about. The product produced is low THC-Cannabis, which means a patient will not get "high" from the low dosage. The goal is for medical pain relief, as well as the control of seizures—some epileptic children suffer from as many as 100 seizures per day. The plants are produced at an unknown location in Quincy, Florida—for an extraction process to infuse into medical devices via oral syringe, capsule, tincture, or vaporizer.
Propagation of Gambel oak (Quercus gambelii) by layering©

Author: L.A. Rupp

PP: 173

Gambel oak (Quercus gambelii) has potential as a small, drought tolerant tree for landscapes in the southwestern United States. Vegetative propagation of Gambel oak by mound layering was examined in Kaysville, Utah, from 2012 to 2015. Layering was done by pruning trees to their base each year and then gradually mounding conifer shavings around the base of each tree as new shoot growth occurred throughout the season. Shoots were girdled and treated with auxin in July of each year or left untreated as controls, and harvested in October or November of each year. Rooted layers were transplanted into 1-gal. pots and grown in a greenhouse for observation. Rooting of treated shoots and controls increased with age of the stock plants and with use of auxin. Further research to improve survival of the rooted layers will be needed.
2016 trial garden winners at the Mississippi Truck Crops Branch Experiment Station©

Author: S.R. Broderick

PP: 171

During 2016, 109 new bedding plants were trialed for performance in Crystal Springs, Mississippi, under low-maintenance landscape conditions. The top performers among sun-loving flowering plants, sun-loving foliage plants, and shadeloving flowering plants were identified. Results from the plant trials serve as a resource for horticultural professionals, educators, and home gardeners in Mississippi.
Going nuts: continuing a 40-year-old woody ornamental breeding program©

Author: T.J. Molnar

PP: 305

The Rutgers University Woody Ornamental Breeding Program began in 1960 under the direction of Dr. Elwin Orton. He was initially charged to develop a holly (Ilex species) breeding program with the ambitious goal of crossing I. opaca, our native eastern holly, with the English holly, I. aquifolium. The main premise was to develop an improved plant for the holiday cut branch market that expressed the excellent glossy foliage and berry display found on the English holly combined with the cold hardiness and wide adaptation of the American species. Dr. Orton, a scientist trained in classical corn genetics at the University of Wisconsin, accepted this responsibility and put in a tremendous effort to achieve this goal. Unfortunately, however, after over a decade of tedious work, Dr. Orton abandoned the I. opaca × I. aquifolium project, largely due to genetic incompatibilities between the two species. Fortunately, during this time he also did selection and breeding work within I. opaca alone, which yielded several cultivar releases. These include I. opaca ‘Jersey Princess’, ‘Jersey Knight’, ‘Dan Fenton’, Jersey Delight’, and most recently ‘Portia Orton’. All are female except ‘Jersey Knight’, and several have become well known in the nursery and landscape trade especially noted for their excellent dark green, glossy foliage. Besides I. opaca, Dr. Orton also worked with Japanese holly. Ilex crenata ‘Beehive’ was his best known release—a plant selected from more than 21,000 seedlings derived from crossing I. crenata ‘Convexa’ × I. crenata ‘Stokes’. ‘Beehive’ was selected for its mite resistance, cold hardiness, and compact form. In addition, he also released several dwarf forms of the species—‘Green Dragon’ and ‘Dwarf Pagoda’ were the most widely known (Galle, 1997).
Adding value the European way©

Author: A. Engels

PP: 293

Abstract: In Dutch industry adding value is usually linked to marketing: Point of sale materials like product labels, and packaging. But adding value can mean different kinds of things in nursery production. In this presentation I will indicate several trends on the continent, developments, and examples of added value for nurseries in several countries.
Plant gems from China©

Author: D. Peng, L. Chen, and M. Gu

PP: 333

A lot of plants native in China thrive in landscapes across the USA. Chinese plant germplasm has been continuously introduced to the USA, and used in breeding and selection. So many new cultivars with Chinese genetics have been introduced in the landscape plant market. The Chinese love plants and particularly enjoy 10 "traditionally famous flowers": lotus (Nelumbo nucifera), sweet olive (Osmanthus frangrans), peony (Paeonia suffruticosa), azalea (Azalea spp.), chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum spp.), mei flower (Prunus mume), daffodil (Narcissus spp.), rose (Rosa spp.), camellia (Camellia spp.) and cymbidium (Cymbidium spp.). Public and university breeders have focused on these taxa. In addition, many species and cultivars commonly grown in China may be of interest to growers and landscape professionals in the USA, which this manuscript will be focused on.
Responsible sourcing of growing media in the UK©

Author: C. Dawson

PP: 301

In 2011 the UK government passed an Environment White Paper which included ambitious targets for peat reduction. The targets aimed for no peat in retail growing media by 2020 and none used by professional growers by 2030. The voluntary targets have helped to change the perceptions and actions of the entire industry. Peat use is gradually falling and most importantly, there is now an acceptance that other materials can enhance the performance of plant growth either in conjunction with or as a complete replacement for peat.
Breaking dormancy by successive low and high temperature on the seed germination of Glehnia littoralis©

Author: A. Noguchi, K. Takahata, and W. Amaki

PP: 121

Glehnia littoralis Fr. Schmidt ex Miquel (Apiaceae, syn., Umbelliferae) is one of the typical seaside plants and is endemic to Japan, Korea, and China. The tap root has been used as a Kampo medicine and as a vegetable for the Japanese traditional dishes. In recent years, the extinction of G. littoralis is worried about because of illegal harvesting from its natural habitats. For vegetation recovery, it is necessary to do seed propagation from seeds gathered in the same indigenous place to avoid disturbance of each ecosystem. Therefore we tried to clarify the effect of low temperature and successive low and high temperature treatments to seeds before sowing on the germination rate. Low temperature treatment promoted germination. However, germination rate of each fruit cluster was obviously different. The successive low (L), high (H) and low (L) temperature treatment remarkably accelerated seed germination compared with H and L treatments. Especially the L4H4L4 treatment caused the highest rate (58%) through these all experiments.
Connecting opportunities to a wider audience©

Author: I. Tolley

PP: 85

I am an Australian IPPS founding member and still, many decades later, passionate about propagation. I have been at various times, on most relevant committees and Presidencies of both the Australian Region and the International governing body. I have not only an intimate knowledge of how our Society has and is operating, but a "feeling" of time and attitude changes, surrounding our common goals of
Lean production and your plant factory©

Author: S.A. Langlois

PP: 35

We all deal with doing more with less. There was a time in my career when I thought that the entire "more with less" situation was unique to my generation and time. I’m now convinced that sooner or later everyone will be faced with trying to match production goals and expectations with limited and/or declining resources. Over the years, new techniques and thrusts have risen to the forefront in the areas of production efficiency and cost reduction. Each new method has had its own merits and some seemed to last longer than others. Lean production has its roots in many of the techniques developed in the early 20th century on the first production assembly lines in the USA. It is perhaps because of the history and pedigree of "Lean" that it works so well for so many diverse industries. Lean is, in many ways, more common sense and intuitive techniques than hard core science. Perhaps this explains its draw and staying power. Toyota is credited with refining what we call lean production through the development of the Toyota Production System. After little interest in the USA was expressed in the ideas of pioneers including Juran and Deming, Japan opened its doors and minds to adopting the techniques that made them one of the top manufacturing dynamos in the world.
Comparison of growth between own-rooted and grafted ‘Aikou’ mango trees, and the effects of soil volume on the growth, yield, and fruit quality of potted own-rooted trees©

Author: M. Fumuro

PP: 113

Abstract:Mangifera indica L.) propagated by air layering. The own-rooted, 4-year-old trees were compared with grafted trees (Scion: ‘Aikou’, rootstock: ‘Aikou’ seedling). Growth of the own-rooted trees was significantly lower than that of grafted trees. Except for the shoots, thick branches, and fine roots, the flesh and dry weights of each own-rooted tree organ were lower than those of grafted trees. Total fresh and dry weights of the own-rooted trees were about 56% and 51% of the grafted trees, respectively. The effects of soil volume (15-, 30-, and 45-L pots) on own-rooted trees were also examined over 9 years. The differences in tree growth were not significant among soil volumes. In addition, the differences in yield, fruit number per tree, and average fruit weight among soil volumes were not significant. Fresh weights of the leaves and fine roots, as well as total fresh weights of the under-ground plant parts, increased with soil volume. There were no differences in the fresh weights of shoots, trunks, or thick roots among the soil volumes. Fresh weights of the above-ground plant parts and total tree fresh weights for the 30- and 45-L treatments were significantly greater than those of the 15-L treatment. Differences in dry weights of each organ were approximately the same as the fresh weight differences. There was no observed effect of soil volume on fruit quality.
Cardinal temperatures and thermal time for seed germination of industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa)©

Author: E.W. Janes, R.L. Geneve, and S.T. Kester

PP: 325

Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) has been grown for its fiber, oil-rich seed, and psychoactive resins for over 6000 years (Hermann, 2008). Today, it is estimated that over 25,000 different food, fiber, and medicinal products can be derived from the hemp plant (Johnson, 2015). Most modern production of industrial hemp currently occurs in China, Canada, and European countries. Section 7606 of the Kentucky Agricultural act of 2014 has authorized the production of industrial hemp through cooperation of state Departments of Agriculture, farmers, and university pilot research projects (Kaiser et al., 2015). Prospective industrial hemp farmers in states such as Kentucky will rely on high quality commercial seed in order to support the development and cultivation of a new crop.
Technical sessions, Monday morning, 24 October 2016©

Author: L.M. Miller

PP: 303

The 41st Annual Meeting of the International Plant Propagators
Changes in the physical, chemical, and hydrologic properties of pine bark over twelve months of aging©

Author: L.E. Kaderabek, B.E. Jackson and W.C. Fonteno

PP: 313

Pine bark is one of the most commonly used organic horticultural substrate components in the southeastern USA, but it can also be one of the most variable. It may be used fresh, aged, or composted, and aging and composting times may vary between suppliers or even for the same supplier at different times of the year (Jackson, 2014). Aging refers to the stockpiling and weathering of bark in windrows prior to its use, with no fertilizer additions or pH adjustments, and no attempt to control the moisture content (Pokorny, 1979). While aging is most commonly used in the southeastern USA, interest in fresh pine bark has increased because of its lighter weight, which reduces transportation costs (Fields et al., 2012).
Capers: from wild harvest to gourmet food©

Author: B. Noone

PP: 63

In this presentation I would like to introduce the caper plant, known generally as Capparis spinosa. This botanical name is complicated and a source of debate amongst botanists. Suffice it to say that the capers you buy in the shops around the world will come from 6 different species of Capparis.
I will talk about how I became involved with capers, and this will lead to a discussion of the propagation of this plant, its difficulties and solutions. Finally, I will talk about the future of this plant both locally and overseas.
Micropropagation of Australian native ornamental grevilleas©

Author: J. Puthiyaparambil

PP: 153

Australian native grevilleas are very diverse in their habit and habitat. There are up to 350 species of Grevillea reported, although the number of species varies among authors. Grevillea species range in habit from small, prostrate shrubs, less than 50 cm (20 in.) to trees over 35 m (114 ft) tall. Their habitat extends from the wet tropics of Australia through temperate southern Australia and dry arid zones in Western Australia. Grevilleas are valued for their beautiful form, range of foliage, and diversity of flower colors, sizes, and shapes. Apart from their aesthetic value, they are also great garden plants, attracting native bees, butterflies, and birds, thus enriching the natural habitat. Many Grevillea species are propagated by seeds, but valuable, ornamental hybrids are propagated by cuttings, layering, or grafting. This paper will focus on the rapid cloning of some difficult-to-propagate cultivars of these beautiful ornamentals.
A look at GMOs, GAO and GE plants as they apply to horticulture©

Author: H.W. Barnes

PP: 235

The fundamental question presented to this panel discussion is: what is the role of GMO (genetically modified organism), GAO (genetically altered organism), and GE (genetically engineered) plants in horticulture. To make sense of that assessment some background information and definitions as to what these acronyms mean is in order. The science of horticulture means plants grown for food, ornament, or function that is different from those plants that are grown for agricultural purposes. In brief, tomatoes are horticultural, wheat generally is not except (Australian Office of Gene Technology, 2005) where it is grown for ornamental purposes, same thing applies to corn and Panicum sometimes yes and sometimes no, forest trees and lawn trees are horticultural, cotton is horticultural but soybeans are not, all fruit trees and fruits of any kind on woody or herbaceous plants apart from the grains are horticultural. Seaweed for consumption is agricultural but seaweed grown for the aquarium industry is horticultural. The use of any kind of plant for medical purposes brings it into the fold of horticulture.
Increasing blue light from LEDs reduces leaf length in kale©

Author: B. Swan and B. Bugbee

PP: 175

Kale (Brassica oleracea Acephala Group) seedlings were grown for 21 days under increasing blue light from light-emitting diodes in chambers under low or high photosynthetic photon flux density. Only leaf length was significantly affected, with leaf length decreasing as blue light increased.
What are they teaching kids in school these days? A look at plant propagation courses at North Carolina State©

Author: L. Meyer

PP: 345

North Carolina State University currently offers several plant propagation courses to a number of different student audiences: HS 121 (Plant Propagation for Associates degree students), HS 301 (Plant Propagation for Bachelor’s degree students(, and HS 203 (Home Plant Propagation for certificate students and Bachelor’s degree students pursuing majors unrelated to Horticultural Science). Some of these students are majoring in horticulture, and others are just taking a plant propagation class an elective out of interest. Some of the students want to propagate plants at home as a hobby while others plan to make a career in commercial horticulture.
Even the delivery of the course materials vary as some of these courses are taught in person on campus, while one of them—(HS 203)—is also taught online for distance education students. The students who want to learn about our craft have a wide range of goals. Despite their differences, my teaching goals in these classes are the same.
Growing using hydroponics in the Northeast©

Author: S. Weinstein

PP: 231

Hydroponic is a very broad field with a number of growing options and adaptations. Essentially there are two generally accepted concepts that are different but with a number of hybrid adjunct developments with each of these. Although many of the hybrid systems are "one of a kind" they almost always are related to either deep pond or NFT systems.
This examination of hydroponics is undertaken with the following eight objectives.
Foliar applications of rooting hormone at Decker Nursery©

Author: B.M. Decker and D. Graff

PP: 191

Decker Nursery currently uses only over-spray methods to apply rooting hormones on softwood and dormant hardwood cuttings of woody ornamentals. We have been evolving down this path away from liquid dip and powder application methods for the last 4 years. In this presentation, I will attempt to review the history of this evolution, our current methods of application, a summary of our observations, and the current status of research on the over-spray method.
Expanding the Southwestern plant palette©

Author: G. Starr

PP: 159

Exploring in habitat for plants to introduce to the nursery and landscape industry in the desert southwest can be a hit-and-miss proposition. Sometimes the plants that appear to have the most promising potential end up being a bust, while other plants that are almost an afterthought turn out to be some of the best performers in the landscape.
When searching areas for potential new plants outside of southern Arizona, I have identified two approaches in order to maximize the hits and minimize the misses. One is to identify a climate similar to the one in which you want to introduce "new and unusual" plants and go scour that region for potential plants. The other is to pick plants that already do well in said climate, find out where those are native, and go look for other plants in that area. I would like to share some of the winners and not-yet-winners chosen from over 30 years of exploring in Mexico. Let’s take an alphabetical look at some awesome plants that have made their way into the landscape plant palette.
IPM techniques for unique horticultural situations©

Author: M. Kolaczewski

PP: 285

This presentation discusses various integrated pest management (IPM) strategies that were developed in response to situations where using conventional pest control practices, or materials were impractical or could be deemed unsafe. I have been a practitioner of IPM for over 35 years now. I use less conventional pest control products than I previously did. My philosophy is and has been to move towards a less or non-toxic solution in my horticultural endeavors.
I will now discuss some of these methods I have come up with to deal with several situations where conventional methods may have been impractical. These methods while admittedly may be unorthodox, could be adapted to your particular horticultural operation, in order for you to deal with a similar situation.
Dealing with insect pests of flowering perennials can be complicated. The issue of exposing bees and butterflies to chemicals means that treating for insect pests in a flower border limits your options.
Propagation of Aronia by seed, cuttings, tissue culture and grafting©

Author: M.H. Brand

PP: 197

Aronia spp. are an important group of plants because they have great potential as ornamental landscape plants and as a novel fruit crop with nutraceutical properties. Aronia species are native to many parts of the eastern United States, especially the Northeast. They are deciduous shrubs that make outstanding landscape plants due to their multi-season interest in the form of white spring flowers, black or red fruit in summer and fall, and orange or red fall foliage color. They are also adaptable plants that tolerate a range of challenging environmental conditions and require little landscape care.
The dark-fruited species of Aronia have been promoted as a new fruit crop for the United States and appear to hold considerable potential in this capacity (Secher, 2008). Aronia berries have the highest levels of antioxidants of any fruit and contain high levels of anthocyanins and polyphenolics (Benvenuti et al., 2004; Wu et al., 2004). Studies indicate that Aronia juice and polyphenol-rich extracts possess a wide range of bioactivities, including modulation of endothelial function, blood cholesterol levels, inflammation, oxidative stress, and blood pressure (Jurgonski et al., 2008; Naruszewicz et al., 2007; Valcheva-Kuzmanova et al., 2007; Li et al., 2012).
Novel genetic marker technologies revolutionize apple breeding©

Author: S.E. Gardiner

PP: 23

Abstract: For the past 24 years, my vision and research focus have been to lead the development of modern tools for fruit breeding at Plant & Food Research (PFR). My initial focus was very specific, on apple, however this has expanded, so that our "Mapping & Markers" team of genetic mapping researchers now works on a range of crops, including apple, pear, kiwifruit, peach, apricot, raspberry, blueberry, blackcurrant, hops, and most recently, manuka, applying the same DNA-based technologies to all. We work closely with industry and breeders for each crop, as well as many other PFR and international scientists, including genomics scientists focussing on DNA, those who work on pests and diseases, or fruit characters, such as flavour and texture, using our genetics and genomics expertize to develop tools to
New Zealand horticulture and lean manufacturing at Ardmore Nurseries©

Author: P. Watt

PP: 163

During my time on the Western Region/New Zealand exchange program in the Western USA, my wonderful hosts, Jim and Andi Conner of Alta Nursery, showed me all around San Diego County, including nurseries such as Hines Growers, Village Nurseries, Armstrong Growers, EuroAmerican Propagators, First Step Greenhouses, Tree of Life Nursery, Olive Hill Greenhouses, and of course, Alta Nursery. I have had a very good insight into the IPPS Western Region, which has been most impressive.
I would like to provide an introduction to New Zealand horticulture and Ardmore Nurseries, where I work. I will then discuss lean manufacturing in nurseries, which my nursery has been involved with for the past 12 months.
A New Zealand experience: review of the IPPS Western Region member exchange for 2016©

Author: A. Shireman

PP: 165

The title for this year’s Western Region conference is "A Different Point of View," and I was fortunate to be able to gain an absolutely different point of view in New Zealand earlier this year.
IPPS has a great program for exchanging members from one region to another. This exchange program is a unique opportunity to travel to a different region and interact with members there. This program fully embodies the IPPS motto, "to seek and to share". I was extremely honored to be chosen by the selection committee to represent the Western Region in New Zealand. It was quite a distance to go to seek, but what was shared with me was priceless.
IPPS Japan exchange 2015©

Author: K. Wood

PP: 61

Getting from my hometown of Kihikihi to the city of Toyohashi in Japan was a whirlwind experience. Never having travelled overseas, the contrast in the landscape and culture was overwhelming. Everything was completely alien and utterly amazing.
Mrs Mizutani was my lovely host in Toyohashi. Our first destination was her company
The advantages of sprinklers over mist nozzles©

Author: J. Elliott

PP: 31

Elliott’s Wholesale Nursery is 45 km north of Christchurch. We’re primarily growing ornamental trees and shrubs and we’re on nearly 10 ha. We grow and sell plants from 7 cm to 45 L. We have 16 full-time staff and propagate 90% of our own product. Our nursery grows plants totally on spec so our sales method is primarily peddling. I think all those things are quite significant when you’re in the trade.
I’ve been in business 36 years or something now, and since the earthquake in Christchurch in 2011 we’ve had seven other events including two more earthquakes, a tornado, and three snow storms—and they’ve been the best things that have ever happened to us. Because if it wasn’t for them we wouldn
Container blueberries as an "ornamental edible"©

Author: P.R. Fisher

PP: 13

Blueberries are a great candidate for container production by nursery growers. They fit into the "ornamental edibles" market niche and combine consumer interest in edible gardening, sustainability, and low-care perennials. Blueberry cultivars selected for local conditions can be planted out into the environment as a perennial landscape plant, enjoyed as patio potted plants, and have multi-season interest with spring to summer blooming, fruiting, and foliage, and fall color.
Using mind control tactics to manipulate employees©

Author: L. Day

PP: 359

Honestly, this paper will not teach you "mind control", but it will give you a slightly better understanding of working with people. The thing about people is that we are all the same, yet we are all so very different. But as you begin to understand how this uniqueness manifests in others and what drives certain behaviors, we can learn to alter our behavior and communication. This will help in better anticipating and strategizing in working with different personalities to accomplish goals and tasks.
What makes a business successful? Maybe it’s the right idea at the right time, maybe a high quality product? But what I and many others would argue is that one of the most important factors is having a good team. What good is a great, new idea without the people to back it up and see it to fruition? How do you continue to produce a quality product without a team to create, manage, and distribute it? Think of it from a financial standpoint. I have heard countless conversations in the industry about labor being one of the biggest expenditures in the business. If you have a job to do, you want someone who is well suited for that job that will do it well. You would not buy a screwdriver to use it as a hammer. Obviously it is capable of doing the job of a hammer, but without using its full ability. Utilizing the skill and talents of employees should not be any different.
IPPS Western Region exchange 2015©

Author: K. Scott

PP: 59

In conjunction with IPPS Western Region and IPPS New Zealand I was selected to travel to sunny California for 3 weeks in September 2015 to visit nurseries and learn.
My Hosts, Jim and Andi Conner, picked me up from LAX and we drove to their seaside condo in Oceanside where vast number of nurseries reside. Jim and Andi were the most superb hosts, they had planned my visit to a tee. In the first week we visited around 10 to 12 nurseries in from Rainbow to Vista. I’ve never come across such big nurseries and was totally in awe of the space (but maybe I don’t get out from the nursery much here!) Fields upon fields of growing spaces, prop houses. Nearly every container nursery I visited did their own propagation and vice versa.
Evaluation of hop cultivation feasibility in Connecticut©

Author: K.A. Maurer, A.B. DeFrancesco, and J.A. LaMondia

PP: 249

Abstract: Hop (Humulus lupulus) cultivation and brewing has a long tradition that started with the first settlers in the Northeastern of the United States. Disease pressure and the enactment of Prohibition moved production to the Pacific Northwest starting in the 1800s, which currently constitutes the largest production area worldwide (FAOSTAT, 2013). However, interest in hop cultivation in the Northeast has increased in the last few years led by New York State and Vermont. The increasing popularity of the microbrew culture, local brewpubs, home brewing, and the growing demand for regional products have created a new niche for hops in New England. Brewing beer in Connecticut is on the rise as well, because of the high water quality (Paul Dockter and Lamott, personal communication). The commercial production of hops in Connecticut has just started.
An evaluation of yellow-flowering magnolias and magnolia rootstocks©

Author: D.C. Fare

PP: 39

Yellow-flowering magnolias were evaluated for flower color, bloom duration and growth rate in USDA Hardiness Zone 6b. Of the 30 selections evaluated, all were reported to have yellow blooms; however, tepal color ranged from light pink with some yellow coloration, creamy yellow to dark yellow. ‘Daphne’, ‘Judy Zuk’, and ‘Yellow Bird’ have the darkest yellow tepals and would often be the last to bloom. ‘Gold Star’, ‘Golden Gala’, ‘Stellar Acclaim’, ‘Sun Spire’, and ‘Sundance’ had the lightest yellow tepal color. ‘Goldfinch’, ‘Butterflies’, and ‘Elizabeth’ were the earliest to bloom and ‘Elizabeth’ had one of the longest flowering periods. ‘Carlos’ and ‘Gold Star’ are the tallest selections at 7 m each after 10 years in the evaluation. ‘Golden Gala’, ‘Gold Star’, ‘Carlos’, ‘Lois’, and ‘Yellow Lantern’ had the largest trunk diameters and averaged over 2.5 cm growth per year. ‘Sun Spire’ has one of the smallest trunk diameters and shows an annual increase of about 1.5 cm per year. Powdery mildew incidence, Phyllactinia corylea and Microsphaera alni, was observed on all selections; however, ‘Golden Sun’, ‘Solar Flair’, ‘Stellar Acclaim’, ‘Sunburst’, ‘Sunsation’, and ‘Yellow Bird’ had greater than 40% of the leaf area affected with mildew with over 60% of the canopy affected by late summer. Powdery mildew was significantly less on ‘Banana Split’, ‘Carlos’, ‘Elizabeth’, and ‘Sun Spire’. An evaluation of rootstocks revealed ‘Leonard Messel’ had more height growth occur with scions than selections budded onto other rootstocks in comparison to scions budded on to ‘Wada‘s Memory’ rootstock which produced the smallest height growth. Rootstocks ’Wada‘s Memory’ and ‘Ballerina’ produced the smallest scion trunk diameter growth. After 5 years, bud incompatibility was observed on rootstocks ‘Ballerina’ and ‘Leonard Messel’ as indicated in the difference of growth between the rootstock and the scion.
Bridging the green gap©

Author: K. Smith

PP: 89

The information I am about to present today is purely a result of speaking with people in various sectors of the horticultural industry. This is their feedback when asked what issues they have when trying to source plants or to complete their jobs as designers or installers of plants. This is in no way a criticism of anyone
Impacts of preemergence herbicide formulation on cost and weed control efficacy for container nursery crop producers©

Author: D. Saha, C. Marble, N.S. Boyd, and S. Steed

PP: 319

This research was conducted to study the impacts of herbicide formulation on the cost and efficacy of common preemergence herbicides. Granular and spray-applied formulations of flumioxazin, indaziflam, pendimethalin + dimethanamid-P, and prodiamine were evaluated for control of four weed species including dove weed (Murdannia nudiflora), crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis), eclipta (Eclipta prostrata), and spotted spurge [Euphorbia maculata (syn. Chamaesyce maculate(].
Growing African violets: learning from IPPS experiences©

Author: B. Higgs

PP: 79

A new system for growing and caring for African Violets has been developed that overcomes many of the issues encountered by consumers when grown indoors. The inspiration for much of this arose through IPPS conference participation and through its members.
Recycled water quality dynamics and implications for ornamental crop production©

Author: C. Hong

PP: 353

Capture and reuse of agricultural runoff for irrigation was first adopted primarily for environmental protection (Skimina, 1986). Over the past 30 years, this practice has evolved to be an important sustainability strategy for many ornamental crop production nurseries. However, until very recently, little was known about recycled water quality dynamics in runoff containment ponds (Hong et al., 2009). In that 2009 study, we discovered through continuously monitoring that water quality in a containment pond fluctuates dramatically over time with pH being mostly alkaline. To determine whether this fluctuation and alkaline pH prevalence also occur in other containment ponds, we have since expanded the monitoring program to include nine ponds in Virginia, two in Maryland, and one in Mississippi through a joint project with University of Maryland and USDA ARS Southern Horticultural Lab (http://www.irrigation-pathogens.ppws.vt.edu/). This expanded monitoring demonstrated that dramatic fluctuation and alkaline pH prevalence are common in containment ponds (Zhang et al., 2015a, b, 2016). This presentation uses a small subset of the Virginia data to illustrate this and some other major findings and discuss their potential implications for ornamental crop production.
Broken Arrow Nursery plants: an exploration of underutilized plants, our introductions and the future©

Author: A.R. Wheeler

PP: 183

Since its inception, Broken Arrow Nursery has strived to be a premiere destination nursery that acquires, develops, and grows rare, unusual, and garden-worthy plants. We work tirelessly to offer superior quality, outstanding customer service and expert advice to gardeners and enthusiasts.
The vision of Broken Arrow Nursery is to inspire a love of plants and enrich the lives of our customers through the unique, great plants we grow and knowledge we freely share. We are breeders, collectors, propagators and promoters. In our efforts to achieve this vision we have developed and introduced a diversity of trees, shrubs and perennials through the years. This paper will provide a summary of some of our past plant introductions, a summary of a few underutilized and exceptional offerings as well as a glimpse toward future plant selections.